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2016年第5期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2016-10-21 14:41  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

2016年第5期目次及主要文章中英文摘要

 

核电厂应急监测能力评估指标体系构建......................................黄彦君,赵锋,王海峰,等(1)

南京市初始排污权核定总体思路及存在问题........................................程涵,袁进辉,管蓓(6)

浅议SaaS模式环境监测信息化建设的可行性..................................叶锴,王合生,喻义勇,等(10)

国家环境标准中挥发性有机物分析方法的研究进展..........................张展毅,曾凡进,朱智成,等(14)

降雨特征对合流制排水系统径流污染负荷的影响..................................王俊松,赵磊,张晓旭(19)

基于小波分析与BP神经网络的PM10浓度预测模型......................................李勇,白云,李川(24)

进水浓度和水力停留时间对浮水植物净化效果的影响..............................王小娟,陈年来,褚润(29)

凤羽河小流域水质氮磷特征及影响因素分析..................................付斌,刘宏斌,胡万里,等(34)

金山三岛陆域生态系统健康状况分析评价..............................................杜运才,王万胜(39)

重庆市主城区二次有机碳气溶胶污染特征研究..................................陈敏,周志恩,张丹,等(43)

在线固相萃取-HPLC法测定公共绿地土壤中新烟碱类农药残留.....................檀笑昕,李享,李楠,等(48)

超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定土壤中多种全氟化合物.........................陈军,张钧,王振宇,等(52)

气相色谱-质谱联用法测定水中卤代乙酸类化合物...............................褚春莹,谭培功,房贤文(55)

ICP-AES法和分光光度法测定工业废水中总磷的方法比较.........................汪张懿,杨颖,任荣,等(58)

西安市城市景观水体富营养化现状及成因分析................................胡世龙,纪佳渊,陈荣,等(62)

放射性平行样品结果处理的探讨..........................................王瑞俊,段媛媛,高泽全,等(66)

土著厌氧菌修复有机氯污染土壤的方法探索..................................沈桢,金京勋,郑家传,等(68)

 

〖篇 名〗核电厂应急监测能力评估指标体系构建

〖作 者〗黄彦君,赵锋,王海峰,陈超峰,沙向东,上官志洪

〖机 构〗中广核集团苏州热工研究院

〖摘 要〗基于核电厂应急监测的任务、内容、区域、范围等因素,结合我国相关法规、标准要求,建立了核电厂应急监测能力评估指标体系。该体系以监测组织机构和人员的协调性、监测设施和设备的有效性、监测程序和方法的可行性、监测数据质量和应用的可靠性为一级指标,下设10个二级指标和35个三级指标。采用层次分析法对一、二级指标权重作评估,采用比例分配法对三级指标赋值,得到核电厂应急监测能力的总体评价。

〖关键词〗核电厂;应急监测;能力评估;层次分析法

Abstract〗In this paper, the assessment index system of emergency environmental monitoring for nuclear power plant (NPP) was proposed based on the issues of missions, contents, area, methods, configuration of monitoring facility and equipment, et al, and the national standards and regulatory requirements. In this system, the harmony of monitoring institutional framework and personnel, the effectiveness of monitoring facilities and equipment, the feasibility of monitoring procedures and methods and the reliability of data quality assurance and application were assigned as the firstclass targets. There were also 10 secondclass and 35 thirdclass targets proposed for building an integrated index system. The relative index weights of the first and second class targets were evaluated by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The thirdclass targets were evaluated based on the proportional principle through a field inspections and assessments. The method could be used effectively for capability assessment and capacity building of the emergency monitoring in nuclear power plant.

Key words〗Nuclear power plant; Emergency monitoring; Capability assessment; Analytic hierarchy process

〖基金〗国家能源局能源标准化“核电厂流出物与环境监测标准体系研究”基金资助项目(能源20150780)

 

〖篇 名〗南京市初始排污权核定总体思路及存在问题

〖作 者〗程涵1,袁进辉2,管蓓1

〖机 构〗1.南京市环境保护科学研究院,2.南京市环境保护局

〖摘 要〗以南京市为例,从核定范围、核定对象、调查内容、核算方法、核算结果校核等方面分析了初始排污权核定的总体思路,设计了初始排污权核定的工作程序。总结归纳了实践中存在的政策性问题、技术性问题及其他普遍性问题,提出了加快相关政策条例的推进步伐、成立专门的技术机构、建立环保大数据平台、持续提升环境监测能力、加强公众参与等建议。

〖关键词〗初始排污权;核定;总体思路;工作程序;南京市

Abstract〗Taking Nanjing as an example, the general idea of initial emission right approval was analyzed in the aspect of approved scope, approved object, research content, accounting methods and accounting result verification. The working procedure was designed. It summarized the policy issues, technical issues and other general issues occurred in practice. It put forward some suggestions in promoting the relevant policies and regulations, establishing specialized technical institution, building the environmental protection big data platform, continuously improving the environmental monitoring capabilities, and strengthening public participation and so on.

Key words〗Initial emission rights; Approval; General idea; Working procedure; Nanjing

〖基金〗南京市环境保护局“排污权交易评估体系研究”基金资助项目(201509)

 

〖篇 名〗浅议SaaS模式环境监测信息化建设的可行性

〖作 者〗叶锴1,王合生1,喻义勇1,徐荣1,刘芷瑜2,王玲3,孙怀志3

〖机 构〗1. 南京市环境监测中心站,2. 南京航空航天大学,3. 南京铭攀信息科技有限公司

〖摘 要〗基于国内环境监测行业信息化建设的现状,针对SaaS模式在该领域的应用做可行性分析。介绍了SaaS模式与传统ASP模式的区别,探讨了SaaS模式给环境监测信息化建设带来的选择与机遇,以及其满足各层次多用户需求、实现服务个性化定制、具备快速扩展和恢复能力等优势。结合现阶段环境监测信息化建设采用SaaS模式在政策体制、业务实现、信息技术方面所面临的问题,提出了相应的建议。

〖关键词〗SaaS模式;环境监测;信息化建设;可行性

Abstract〗Based on the current situation of domestic environmental monitoring information system, the feasibility analysis for the application of SaaS mode and the difference between SaaS mode and traditional mode of ASP were discussed. SaaS model brings options and challenges, it has the advantages in meeting multiuser demands, customizing, rapid expansion and restoration. Suggestions have been put forward in view of the problems in policy system, business implementation and information technologies SaaS mode adopting presently.

Key words〗SoftwareasaService; Environmental monitoring; Information construction; Feasibility

〖基金〗南京市环境保护局“基于SaaS模式下的环境监测信息化建设可行性研究”基金资助项目(201503)

 

〖篇 名〗国家环境标准中挥发性有机物分析方法的研究进展

〖作 者〗张展毅1,2,曾凡进1,朱智成1,程小谷1,曾立民3

〖机 构〗1. 广州市环境保护科学研究院,2.暨南大学环境与气候研究院,3. 北京大学环境科学与工程学院,环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室

〖摘 要〗综述了我国不同介质中挥发性有机物(VOCs)的环境监测方法标准,介绍了样品采集和前处理、分析方法、质量保证与质量控制等技术内容,以及VOCs监测技术的研究进展。分析了国内VOCs监管控制的现状和重点需求,并在此基础上提出了健全VOCs环境标准体系、完善分类监管的优先控制物种清单、尽快实现VOCs监测工作的常态化、推广应用先进的VOCs监测技术等建议。

〖关键词〗国家环境标准;挥发性有机物;监测技术

Abstract〗The national environmental standard monitoring methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different media were reviewed, including sampling, sample pretreatment, quantitative analysis methods and QA/QC contents. The research progress of VOCs monitoring technology was also introduced. The current situation and the key demand of the domestic VOCs regulatory control were discussed. On this basis, recommendations were put forward to regulate the VOCs environmental standard system, to improve the classification regulation of priority control species list, to achieve VOCs monitoring work normalization as soon as possible, and to promote the application of advanced VOCs monitoring technology.

Key words〗National environmental standards; Volatile organic compounds; Monitoring technology

〖基金〗国家高技术研究发展计划“八六三”基金资助项目(2014AA06A507);国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项基金资助项目(2012YQ060027);广东省科技厅2013年度省高科技发展专项基金资助项目(2013B060100006);国家环境保护标准基金资助项目(2015-17)

 

〖篇 名〗降雨特征对合流制排水系统径流污染负荷的影响

〖作 者〗王俊松,赵磊,张晓旭

〖机 构〗云南省环境科学研究院,云南高原湖泊流域污染过程与管理重点实验室

〖摘 要〗通过对昆明主城区典型合流制排水系统10次降雨径流过程水质水量的监测,计算次降雨污染负荷,并采用M(V)曲线和初期冲刷系数方法对降雨特征与次降雨污染、初期冲刷负荷之间的关系进行探讨。结果表明:10次降雨事件径流污染负荷存在明显的差异,SS、COD、TP和TN的次降雨污染负荷平均值分别为21.5 kg/hm2、16.9 kg/hm2、0.3 kg/hm2、3.9 kg/hm2;降雨量、最大雨强和平均雨强与次降雨污染负荷及初期冲刷强度呈显著正相关,是影响其初期冲刷的重要水文参数;降雨历时和前期晴天与次降雨污染负荷和初期冲刷强度没有相关性,二者对次降雨污染负荷和初期冲刷无明显影响。

〖关键词〗城市降雨径流;合流制排水系统;初期冲刷;污染负荷;昆明

Abstract〗Study was made on typical combined drainage systems from Kunming main urban area. Ten typical rain were monitored and calculated for pollution load. The dimensionless accumulative mass loading vs. volume curve [M(V) curve] and parameter b were used to discuss the relationship between the event pollution load and rainfall characteristics. Results showed that the pollution load of catchment was distinctly different in every rainfall. The mean event pollution load of SS,COD,TP and TN were 21.5 kg/hm2,16.9 kg/hm2,0.3 kg/hm2 and 3.9 kg/hm2 respectively during the rainy season. Rainfalls, maximum and average rainfall intensity had significant positive correlation with the event pollution load and first flush, and were the critical hydrologic parameters to first flush. Rainfall duration and previous fine days had no correlation with the event pollution load and first flush.

Key words〗Urban runoff; Combined drainage systems; The first flush effect; Pollution load; Kunming

〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(No.2012ZX07102001-002);云南应用基础研究基金资助项目(No.2008ZC103M)

 

〖篇 名〗基于小波分析与BP神经网络的PM10浓度预测模型

〖作 者〗李勇1,白云2*,李川1

〖机 构〗1.重庆工商大学环境与生物工程学院,2.安徽科技学院城建与环境学院

〖摘 要〗应用小波分析和BP神经网络相结合的方法,建立大气污染物浓度预测模型。首先,利用静态小波分解将原始的大气污染物浓度序列分解为不同频段的小波系数序列;其次,将重要的气象因子和各尺度上的小波系数序列作为BP神经网络的输入;最后,对输出的各序列预测值重构,得到最终的预测结果。使用该模型对重庆市主城区某国控监测站点的PM10浓度预测,结果表明,与传统的BP神经网络模型相比,该预测模型的推广能力强、预测精密度高,具有良好的应用前景。

〖关键词〗小波分析;BP神经网络;预测模型;PM10

Abstract〗A forecasting model of air pollutant concentration was established with a method of wavelet analysis and BP neural networks combining. Firstly, series of air pollutant concentration were decomposed into different frequency bands by the static wavelet decomposition. Secondly, the reconstruction series of branch of wavelet and the important meteorological factors were input into BP neural networks. Finally, the predicted results from every decomposition series were integrated as the final prediction results of the concentration. Taking some air quality monitoring sites from Chongqing as example, we predicted the PM10 concentration by the model. The results show that the model had better generalization ability, higher precision of prediction and a good application prospect compared with the traditional BP neural network.

Key words〗Wavelet analysis; BP neural networks; Predict model; PM10

〖基金〗教育部留学回国人员科研启动基金资助项目(教外司留[2013]693号);重庆市研究生教改基金资助项目(YJG43015)

 

〖篇 名〗进水浓度和水力停留时间对浮水植物净化效果的影响

〖作 者〗王小娟,陈年来*,褚润

〖机 构〗甘肃农业大学资源与环境学院

〖摘 要〗以浮萍、大薸、凤眼莲3种浮水植物为试材,分别在水力停留2 d、4 d、8 d、10 d、12 d和14 d测定污水中DO、COD、TP、NH3-N含量。通过比较植物在不同浓度污水中的净化效果,确定其在最佳浓度污水中对各污染物处理的最佳停留时间。结果表明,3种植物在适宜污水浓度均表现出较强净化效果。净化周期内,NH3-N、TP去除率变化趋势与DO变化趋势一致,大薸、浮萍、凤眼莲在低浓度污水中对NH3-N、TP去除率最好,NH3-N最佳停留时间分别为8 d、12 d、14 d,TP去除的最佳停留时间均为10 d,中浓度污水适合COD去除,大薸、浮萍、凤眼莲对COD去除的最佳停留时间分别为 14 d、8 d、10 d。

〖关键词〗浮水植物;污水浓度;水力停留时间;净化效果

Abstract〗 Taking three floating plants Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solme as test materials, the concentration of DO, COD, TP, NH3-N in sewage were determined by setting hydraulic residence time as 2 d, 4 d, 8 d, 10 d, 12 d and 14 d, respectively. Comparing the plant purification effect in different concentration sewage, the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of plants in the optimal sewage concentration was determined, Results showed that these three floating plants had strong purifying effect on appropriate concentration sewage. During the purification cycle, Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solme had the best removal rate of NH3-N and TP in low concentration. The optimal HRT of NH3-N removal were 8 d, 12 d and 14 d, respectively. The best HRT of TP removal were all 10 d. Medium concentration sewage was appropriate for COD removal. The optimal residence time of Pistia stratiotes L., Lemna minor L., and Eichhournia crassipes (Mart.) Slome on COD removal were 14 d, 8 d and 10 d, respectively.

Key words〗Floating plants; Sewage concentration; Hydraulic retention time; Purification effect

〖基金〗甘肃农业大学盛彤笙基金资助项目(GSAU-STS-1435)

 

〖篇 名〗凤羽河小流域水质氮磷特征及影响因素分析

〖作 者〗付斌1,2,刘宏斌3,4,胡万里1,2*,段宗颜1,2,翟丽梅3,4,鲁耀1,2,段艳涛5,陈安强1,2,杜彩艳1,2

〖机 构〗1.云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所,2.农业部嵩明农业环境科学观测实验站,3.中国农业科学院农业环境与农业区划研究所,4.农业部面源污染控制重点实验室,5.大理州农业技术推广研究院

〖摘 要〗基于2013年凤羽河流域水质氮磷监测数据,解析流域水质氮磷特征,并分析影响其变化因素。结果表明:凤羽河水质氮磷质量浓度较高出现在3个时段,2月份,TN 0.95 mg/L~2.47 mg/L,以NO-3-N(55.6%)和DON(32.0%)为主,人类活动是影响的主要因素;5—6月,TN 0.77 mg/L~2.47 mg/L,以NO-3-N(64.3%)为主,TP 0.08 mg/L~0.70 mg/L,以PP(56.4%)和DTP(43.6%)为主,水稻种植和初期降雨是影响的主要因素;7—9月,TN 0.76 mg/L~3.73 mg/L,以NO-3-N(47.4%)和PN(35.4%)为主,TP 0.07 mg/L~0.97 mg/L,以PP(74.6%)为主,日降雨量是影响的主要因素。治理凤羽河流域农业面源污染应分时段、分区域调控。

〖关键词〗水质氮磷特征;影响因素;农业面源;小流域;凤羽河

Abstract〗The characteristics of water quality and influence factor analysis in Fengyu River watershed were studied by the continuous positioning monitoring section data. The results showed that high concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus could consist of three stages. In February, total nitrogen concentration ranged 0.95 mg/L~2.47 mg/L, nitrate nitrogen(55.6%)and dissolved organic nitrogen(32.0%)were the major fraction of total nitrogen. Human activities were the main causes of water pollution. From May to June, total nitrogen concentration ranged 0.77 mg/L~2.47 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen accounted for 64.3%. Total phosphorus concentration ranged 0.08 mg/L~0.70 mg/L, particulate phosphorus(56.4%)and total dissolved phosphorus(43.6%)were the major fraction of total phosphorus. The initial stage 〖JP2〗of rainfall and rice cultivation were the main causes of water pollution. From July to September, total nitrogen concentration ranged 〖JP〗0.76 mg/L~3.73 mg/L, nitrate nitrogen(47.4%)〖JP1〗and particulate nitrogen(35.4%)were the 〖JP+1〗major fraction of total nitrogen. Total phosphorus concentration〖JP〗〖FL)〗   ranged 0.07 mg/L~0.97 mg/L, particulate phosphorus accounted for 74.6%. The daily rainfalls had main effect on water pollution. Based on this research, regulation of prevention and control could effectively decrease nonpoint source pollution.

Key words〗The water quality characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus; Influence factors; Agricultural nonpoint sources; Small watershed; Fengyu River

〖基金〗农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项基金资助项目(201303089)

 

〖篇 名〗金山三岛陆域生态系统健康状况分析评价

〖作 者〗杜运才,王万胜

〖机 构〗金山区海洋海塘管理所

〖摘 要〗在对上海市金山三岛自然保护区陆域生态系统调查研究的基础上,采用层次分析法-综合指数评价模型对其进行生态健康状况评价分析。结果表明,该陆域生态系统综合健康指数(CEI)为0.648,保护区的生态质量一般,生态系统稳定性差,自我恢复能力不强。建议采取一定的人为干预措施来保护金山三岛陆域生态系统,使其朝更优的方向发展。

〖关键词〗金山三岛;陆域生态系统;层次分析法;综合指数评价模型;健康评价

Abstract〗 Based on the investigation and studies of the land area of Jinshan threeislands marine natural reserve in Shanghai, the authors use analytic hierarchy processcompound evaluation index model to estimate the ecological condition of the reserve. Finally, the composite evaluation index(CEI) was figured out as 0.648. The results showed that the environment system was not quite satisfying, with poor stability and recovery capability. It is suggested that measures should be taken to protect the ecosystem of the Three Islands for a better changes.

Key words〗Jinshan threeislands; Land area ecosystem; Analytic hierarchy process; Comprehensive index evaluation model; Healthiness evaluation.

〖基金〗国家海洋局“基于海洋健康的资源环境承载力监测与预警关键技术研究及区域应用示范”基金资助项目(201405008);国家海洋局海域使用金专项“上海市大金山岛保护与开发利用示范工程”基金资助项目(QT2014003);上海市海洋局2011年课题“上海金山三岛海洋生态自然保护区陆域调查”基金资助项目
〖HT6H〗作者简介:〖HT6SS〗杜运才(1976—),男,江苏连云港人,高级工程师,学士,主要从事海洋生态学、生态系统健康评价、生态规划建设与管理工作。

 

〖篇 名〗重庆市主城区二次有机碳气溶胶污染特征研究

〖作 者〗陈敏1,周志恩1*,张丹1,李振亮1,孟小星2,吕平江1

〖机 构〗1.重庆市环境科学研究院,2.重庆市环境监测中心

〖摘 要〗为研究重庆市大气PM2.5中二次有机气溶胶污染特征,于2013年1—12月运用URG-3000ABC型中流量颗粒物采样仪连续同步采集重庆市主城区大气PM2.5样品,选取OC/EC 比值对PM2.5中的SOC污染进行估算,结果表明,该市主城区PM2.5中SOC年平均质量浓度为12.5 μg/m3,占OC质量浓度的50.0%,占PM2.5质量浓度的10.1%,SOC质量浓度为冬季>秋季>夏季>春季。机动车排放是SOC前体物的主要来源。

〖关键词〗PM2.5;二次有机碳气溶胶;污染特征;重庆

Abstract〗In order to study pollution characteristics of secondary organic aerosols, PM2.5 samples were collected by URG-3000ABC from January to December 2013 in urban area of Chongqing, and OC/EC ratio method was chosen to estimate SOC in PM2.5. Results showed that the concentrations of SOC was 12.5 μg/m3,which account for 50.0% of OC and 10.1% of PM2.5. The concentration of SOC was highest in winter, then in autumn and summer, and lowest in spring. Vehicle emissions were the main source of precursor material of SOC.

Key words〗PM2.5; SOC; Pollution characteristics; Chongqing

〖基金〗重庆市科委攻关基金资助项目(2013cstc-jbky-01609);重庆市科委自然科学基金资助项目(2015cstc-jbky-01605)

 

〖篇 名〗在线固相萃取-HPLC法测定公共绿地土壤中新烟碱类农药残留

〖作 者〗檀笑昕,李享,李楠,康维钧

〖机 构〗河北医科大学公共卫生学院

〖摘 要〗土壤样品经二氯甲烷-乙腈混合溶液超声提取后,用PEP固相萃取柱在线净化,再用HPLC法测定样品中吡虫啉、啶虫脒、噻虫嗪、噻虫啉、烯啶〖JP2〗虫胺等5种新烟碱类农药残留。通过优化试验条件,使该方法在0.01 mg/L~2.00 mg/L〖JP〗范围内线性良好,当取样量为3.00 g时,方法检出限为0.002 mg/kg ~0.003 mg/kg。8种土壤样品3个质量比水平的加标回收率为72.5%~119%,RSD均低于9.6%。

〖关键词〗新烟碱类农药;在线固相萃取;高效液相色谱法;土壤

Abstract〗The target compounds in soil samples,including: nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid,were extracted by the mixed solution of acetonitrile and dichloromethane under ultrasonic operation, and then purified with a PEP online SPE column. Analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. By optimizing the test conditions, good linear responses of five neonicotinoid residues were observed in the range of 0.01 mg/L~2.00 mg/L.Method detection limits of these five neonicotinoid pesticides in soil ranged from 0.002 mg/kg ~0.003 mg/kg. The recoveries were 72.5%~119%,while RSDs were all below 9.6%. 

Key words〗 Neonicotinoid pesticide residues; Online solid phase extraction; High performance liquid chromatography; Soils

〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(No.81573202,81402723);河北省食品药品监督管理局科技基金资助项目(No.Pt 2014043)

 

〖篇 名〗超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定土壤中多种全氟化合物

〖作 者〗陈军,张钧,王振宇,张永兵,杨文武*

〖机 构〗泰州市环境监测中心站,江苏省环境保护土壤有机污染物监测重点实验室

〖摘 要〗采用超声提取、固相萃取法处理土壤,用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联三重四极杆质谱测定样品中11种全氟化合物,通过优化测定条件,使方法在0.100 μg/L~150 μg/L范围内线性良好(r2>0.995)。当取样量为2.0 g时,方法检出限为0.1 ng/g~0.4 ng/g。实际土壤样品的加标回收率为67.2%~106%,测定6次结果的RSD为6.6%~17.3%。

〖关键词〗全氟化合物;超声提取;固相萃取;超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法;土壤

Abstract〗A method for the determination of 11 perfluorinated compounds in soil was established by ultrasonic extraction, solid phase extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLCESIMS/MS). The results showed that good linearity of 11 target compounds was obtained in the range of 0.100 μg/L~150 μg/L with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.995. The limits of detection(LODs) were 0.1 ng/g~0.4 ng/g when the sampling weight was 2.0 g. The recoveries ratio of soil samples were 67.2%~106%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 6.6%~17.3%.

Key words〗Perfluorinated compounds; Ultrasonic extraction; Solid phase extraction; UPLCMS/MS; Soils

〖基金〗江苏省环保科研课题“典型有机氟化工企业污染场地及周边土壤的环境风险评估”基金资助项目(2012053)

 

〖篇 名〗气相色谱-质谱联用法测定水中卤代乙酸类化合物

〖作 者〗褚春莹,谭培功,房贤文

 

〖机 构〗青岛市环境监测中心站

〖摘 要〗采用气相色谱-质谱联用法测定水中9种卤代乙酸类化合物,通过优化试验条件,使方法在5.00 μg/L~200  μg/L 范围内线性良好。当取样量为40 mL时,方法检出限在0.7 μg/L~1.0 μg/L之间,3种实际水样的加标回收率为81.2%~98.0%,6次平行测定结果的RSD≤12%。

〖关键词〗卤代乙酸类化合物;气相色谱-质谱联用法;水质

Abstract〗A method was established for determination of 9 kinds of haloacetic acids in water by GCMS. The current method showed good linearity in the concentration range from 5.00 μg/L to 200 μg/L. The method detection limits were within 0.7 μg/L~1.0 μg/L when the sample amount was 40 mL. Spiked recoveries in three real samples ranged from 81.2%~98.0%.The RSDs of replicate measurement(n=6) were less than 12%.

Key words〗Haloacetic acids; GCMS; Water quality

〖基金〗国家环境保护标准制修订基金资助项目(927)

 

 

〖篇 名〗ICP-AES法和分光光度法测定工业废水中总磷的方法比较

〖作 者〗汪张懿,杨颖,任荣,熊桂洪

〖机 构〗重庆市九龙坡区环境监测站

〖摘 要〗用ICP-AES法和分光光度法同时测定4种不同工业废水中的总磷含量,将2种方法的测定结果作比对。试验表明,ICP-AES法对国家标准样品的测定结果具有较高的准确度和精密度,4种废水样品测定结果的加标回收率为94.0%~110%,RSD在0.9%~3.2%之间。分光光度法适用于低浓度、低干扰样品的测定,对于高浓度含磷废水,取样体积和样品稀释倍数均会对其测定结果产生显著影响。消解样品经浊度-色度补偿后,分光光度法的测定结果精密度较低。

〖关键词〗总磷;电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法;分光光度法;工业废水

Abstract〗Total phosphorus in four different kinds of industrial wastewater was determined using ICPAES method and ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method, the accuracy and precision of testing results between the two methods were compared. The results showed there was a high accuracy and precision in testing national standard samples using ICPAES method. The recovery of this method ranged from 94.0% to 110% and the RSDs varied from 0.9% to 3.2% in testing four different kinds of industrial wastewater. Ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method is appropriate for samples with low concentration and low interference, since sampling volume and dilution factors had significant effects on testing results in high concentration samples. The precision of testing results using ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method was bad after the colority and turbidity were compensated.

Key words〗Total phosphorus; ICPAES method; Spectrophotometric method; Industrial wastewater

 

 

〖篇 名〗西安市城市景观水体富营养化现状及成因分析

〖作 者〗胡世龙1,纪佳渊2,陈荣1*,彭党聪1,薛涛1

〖机 构〗1.西安建筑科技大学,环境与市政工程学院, 2.日本东北大学,环境科学研究科,

〖摘 要〗2014年12月—2015年6月连续监测西安市13个主要城市景观水体,并对其富营养化现状及成因作分析。监测结果显示,叶绿素a、总磷、总氮、透明度的测定值分别为1.13 mg/m3~675 mg/m3、0.012 mg/L~3.12 mg/L、0.271 mg/L~25.6 mg/L和0.17 m~1.77 m。通过对比补水水源和水质关系得知,以自来水为补水水源的水体营养物含量最低,天然地表水次之,再生水最高。用营养状态指数法评价水体的营养状态,约68%的景观水体呈现富营养状态,景观水体发生富营养化的5个主要成因依次为:营养物指标、部分理化指标、有机物指标、水体感官性状指标、微量元素指标。

〖关键词〗景观水体;富营养化;营养状态指数法;成因分析;西安市

Abstract〗The quality of 13 major urban landscape waters in Xian was continuously monitored from December 2014 to June 2015, and its eutrophication situation and causes were analyzed. Results showed that Chla was 1.13 mg/m3~675 mg/m3, TP was 0.012 mg/L~3.12 mg/L, TN was 0.271 mg/L~25.6 mg/L, SD was 0.17 m~1.77 m. By comparing different supplemental water sources and water quality, it showed that the nutrients content of tap water was the lowest, then natural surface water, and reclaimed water was the highest. The assessment of waters trophic state by trophic state index showed that about 68% of the landscape waters were eutrophicated. Five main causes of eutrophication in turn were nutrients index, physical and chemical indexes, organics indicators, sensory properties index and trace elements indicators.

Key words〗Landscape waters; Eutrophication; Trophic state index; Cause analysis; Xian

〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2012ZX07313-001-002);陕西省科技新星基金资助项目(2013KJXX-55)

〖篇 名〗放射性平行样品结果处理的探讨

〖作 者〗王瑞俊1,段媛媛2,高泽全1,李园1,宋沁楠1

〖机 构〗1.中国辐射防护研究院,2.山西水利职业技术学院

〖摘 要〗介绍放射性平行样品服从的统计分布,据此提出平行样品结果统计检验方法,用该方法对1组平行样品结果做统计检验,并与计算标准偏差的检验方法作比对。结果表明,虽然2种检验方法得出了相反的结论,但统计检验方法的结果更符合放射性测量的规律。

〖关键词〗放射性样品;平行样;结果处理;质量控制;统计检验

Abstract〗In environmental radioactive monitoring, parallel samples collection and analysis are important contents in quality assurance. In this paper, the statistical distribution of radioactive parallel sample results were introduced, and the statistical test method of radioactive parallel sample results were proposed. The statistical test was carried out on a pair of parallel sample results, and compared with the calculated standard deviation. The results showed that although the two methods gave the opposite conclusion, the result of statistical test method was more in accord with the radioactivity measurement.

Key words〗Radioactive sample; Parallel sample; Result processing; Quality control; Statistical test

 

〖篇 名〗土著厌氧菌修复有机氯污染土壤的方法探索

〖作 者〗沈桢1,金京勋2,郑家传1,张建荣1

〖机 构〗1.苏州市环境科学研究所,2.苏州嘉禧萝生物科技有限公司

〖摘 要〗针对工业场地有机氯污染土壤探索微生物修复的方法,试验表明:添加土著厌氧菌菌液及营养液的试验组,污染物去除率比空白组明显提高。基因测定结果显示,试验土壤中至少存在具有降解有机氯污染物能力的3种菌种。

〖关键词〗土著厌氧菌;有机氯污染;基因测定;土壤修复

Abstract〗A test was carried out to explore the method of microbial remediation of organochlorines contaminated soil in industrial site. The results showed that the pollutants removal rate of the test group with indigenous microbial anaerobic bacteria and nutrient solution addition increased significantly than the blank group. According to the results of genetic test, there were at least three strains with organochlorine pollutants degradation ability in the soil.

Key words〗 Indigenous anaerobic bacteria; Organochlorines pollution; Genetic test; Soil restoration

〖基金〗苏州市科技计划基金资助项目(SS201523)