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2016年第6期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2016-12-16 15:26  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

2016年第6期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
 
地表水环境质量评价办法在应用中存在的问题及建议..................嵇晓燕,刘雷,陈亚男,等(1)
美国大气排污许可证制度分析及启示..............................谢放尖,李文青,周君薇,等(5)
巴歇尔槽测量雨水径流流量方法及其改进研究..........................田欢,王文海,李芸,等(9)
长三角典型城市公交车道路NOx排放测试...........................刘登国,刘娟,黄伟民,等(14)
小波方差分析北京市PM2.5质量浓度序列周期特征.......................周杰,杨鹏,吕文生,等(19)
强厄尔尼诺事件对我国东部地区冬季空气质量影响的研究............张良瑜,陆晓波,杨丽莉,等(23)
1961—2012年长江三角洲地区霾日气候特征及变化分析......................温康民,史军,虞琴(28)
淮南市PM2.5中PAHs污染特征及来源分析.........................胡煜,郑刘根,程桦,等(33)
徐州地区地下水中内分泌干扰物的监测与风险评估......................杜娟,胡红娟,杨靖,等(38)
固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定河水中的多环芳烃.........................王钊,张俊,许维,等(41)
顶空气相色谱法测定浓海水中挥发性卤代烃..........................刘静,曾兴宇,周东星,等(44)
XAD-7吸附-毛细管柱气相色谱法测定工作场所空气中乙二醇..........朱月芳,朱剑禾,秦宏兵,等(48)
地表水中SVOCs和氨基甲酸酯类农药同步萃取技术的探讨...............陈贝,张胜军,冯元群,等(51)
不同藻密度条件下铜绿微囊藻与大型溞的相互影响......................徐鑫李,王国祥,李时银(55)
土壤中铁氧化物对铅吸附-解吸的影响...................................葛云思,陈冉,徐启新(60)
移动通信基站架设方式对地面电磁辐射分布的影响..........................姚颖,武攀峰,陆炜(64)
煤电项目竣工环保验收监测二氧化硫排放总量问题浅探..................................田志仁(68)


〖篇 名〗地表水环境质量评价办法在应用中存在的问题及建议
〖作 者〗嵇晓燕1,刘雷2*,陈亚男1,解鑫1,刘允1,白雪1
〖机 构〗1.中国环境监测总站 ;2.江苏省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗分析了《地表水环境质量评价办法(试行)》在应用过程中显现的问题,提出了增加地区特征污染物污染情况说明,补充水质状况定性评价特殊情况说明和变化趋势评价方法的判断优先级别,明确数据修约方式、检出限以下测值的评价方法及水质类别不同而标准限值相同的指标评价方法等建议。
〖关键词〗地表水;环境质量;评价
Abstract〗Defects of surface water environmental quality assessment measures (trial version) were analyzed. Several relevant suggestions were proposed. Descriptions of regional particular pollution situation, methods for special water quality qualitative assessment and preferential water quality change trend evaluation should be added. Data modification method, evaluation method for data below detection limit and evaluation index method for different water quality classification with the same standard limit should be confirmed.
Key words〗Surface water; Environmental quality; Assessment
〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2014ZX07502-002)
 
〖篇 名〗美国大气排污许可证制度分析及启示
〖作 者〗谢放尖1,李文青1,周君薇2,王庆九1
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境保护科学研究院 ;2.江苏省环境经济技术国际合作中心
〖摘 要〗介绍了美国大气排污许可证制度的类型及适用范围、申领门槛及流程、内容及执行情况,指出美国通过实施预建许可证与运营许可证制度,实现了对新、改建固定污染源及现有固定污染源的全过程监管。结合我国大气排污许可证制度存在的问题,提出了进一步完善法律支撑、加强计量体系建设、加大许可证执行力度等建议。
〖关键词〗美国;大气排污许可证制度;固定污染源
Abstract〗It was described the overall situation of U.S. air pollutant discharge permitting system, including type & scope, threshold & process, content & execution status. It was also pointed out that the whole process of U.S. new or modified pollution sources and existing stationary sources were all under supervision by preconstruction permitting and operation permitting system. Finally, for the problems of air pollutant discharge permitting system in China, some proposals were put forward, including further improving legal support, strengthening metrological system building and permitting system executing, etc.
Key words〗 America; Air pollutant discharge permitting system; Stationary sources
〖基金〗中美合作大气质量管理技术援助基金资助项目(GH201361238)
 
〖篇 名〗巴歇尔槽测量雨水径流流量方法及其改进研究
〖作 者〗田欢1,王文海1*,李芸2,崔宇1,李芃抒1
〖机 构〗1.北京建筑大学城市雨水系统与水环境省部共建教育部重点实验室 ;2.北京应对气候变化研究和人才培养基地/北京电子废物资源化国际科技合作基地
〖摘 要〗流量是研究城市非点源污染负荷和雨水径流污染物迁移转化规律的一项基本参数。针对明渠雨水径流流量测量问题,设计了改进的巴歇尔槽模型,通过水力特性试验率定该模型的水力参数,拟合出自由出流条件下水深-流量公式及上游水位与模型水头损失之间的关系,结合1〖JP20〗∶〖JP〗2长度比尺缩小模型对改进槽型使用弗劳德模型律进行验证。结果表明,所建立的改进巴歇尔槽模型其拟合曲线R2>0.990,相对误差的绝对值<5%,精确度较好,改进之后的槽型用于雨水明渠流量测量十分有效。
〖关键词〗巴歇尔槽;雨水径流;流量测量;模型改进;率定试验
Abstract〗Rainwater open channel flow is the basic data of migration and transformation rule of urban nonpoint source pollution load and the rainwater runoff pollutants. This paper mainly used the modified model of Parshall flume to study the measurement method of rainwater in open channel flow. The design parameters of the model were determined through hydraulic characteristics experiment. Under the condition of free flow, the formula of depthflow and relations between the upstream water level and the head loss of model were figured out. And these were validated by Froude similarity criterion on the improved groove type by the 1〖JP20〗∶〖JP〗2 length scale shrunken model. The results showed that R2 of the fitted curve of the modified model of Parshall flume was more than 0.990 and the relative error was within 5%. The improved groove type was efficient in determining the open channel rainwater flow.
Key words〗Parshall flume; Stormwater runoff; Flow measurement; Model modification; Calibration test
〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2010ZX07320-002,2010ZX07320-003);北京建筑大学“城乡建设与管理”产学研联合研究生培养基地基金资助项目
 
〖篇 名〗长三角典型城市公交车道路NOx排放测试
〖作 者〗刘登国1,2,刘娟2,黄伟民2,冯谦1,楼狄明1*
〖机 构〗1.同济大学汽车学院 ;2.上海市环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗为了研究长三角典型城市公交车在实际道路的氮氧化物(NOx)排放特性,采用便携式车载排放测试系统(PEMS),对上海、杭州和苏州3大城市的国Ⅲ、国Ⅳ柴油公交车及LNG公交车共8辆进行实际道路NOx排放试验。结果表明:在稳态行驶工况下,柴油公交车NOx稳态每秒排放呈上升趋势,LNG公交车呈波动变化;国Ⅲ柴油公交车NOx稳态燃料排放呈波动变化,国Ⅳ柴油及LNG公交车呈下降趋势;随比功率增加,柴油公交车NOx瞬态排放大体呈逐渐增加的趋势,而LNG公交车呈先减少后增大的趋势,公交车NOx综合单位里程排放因子在5.0 g/km~19.1 g/km之间,排放因子约为5.1 g/(kW·h)~15.8 g/(kW·h)。
〖关键词〗NOx;城市公交车;排放测试;长三角地区;实际道路
Abstract〗To study the characteristics of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from vehicles in the Yangtze River Delta, this research uses a portable emission measurement system (PEMS), which includes 8 typical urban buses in Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou, including China Ⅲ, Ⅳ diesel buses, and LNG buses. The experimental results show that the NOx emission of diesel buses increases with the increase of speed in steady state, but the NOx emission of LNG bus changes. The fuel emissions of China Ⅲ diesel buses are fluctuating, while China Ⅳ diesel buses and LNG buses show a decrease trend. The NOx of different types of diesel buses are gradually increasing with the increase of VSP, but the LNG buses show the trend of first decrease and then increase. Bus NOx integrated emission factor ranges in 5.0 g/km~19.1 g/km, and the emission factor in 5.1 g/ (kW·h)~15.8 g/ (kW·h).
Key words〗 NOx; Urban bus; Emission test; Yangtze River Delta; Onroad
〖基金〗上海市科委基金资助项目 (13295810500)
 
〖篇 名〗小波方差分析北京市PM2.5质量浓度序列周期特征
〖作 者〗周杰1,杨鹏1*,吕文生2,刘阿古达木2,刘俊秀1
〖机 构〗1.北京联合大学北京市信息服务工程重点实验室;2.北京科技大学土木与环境工程学院
〖摘 要〗为分析北京市大气污染物PM2.5质量浓度的时间序列周期性,采用Morlet小波变换对PM2.5质量浓度进行分析,利用小波方差估计该市PM2.5日均质量浓度的主周期,并通过显著性检验。结果表明,北京市PM2.5日均质量浓度主周期为180 d左右,为后续大气污染物PM2.5时间序列研究提供参考。
〖关键词〗小波变换;方差分析;PM2.5;时间序列;周期性;北京
Abstract〗In order to analyze the time series periodicity of atmospheric pollutant PM2.5  mass concentration in Beijing, Morlet wavelet transform was used to analyze the PM2.5 concentration, and the primary period of  average daily concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was estimated by the wavelet variance, and had passed the significance test. The results show that the average daily concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing is 180 d, which provides a reference for the followup study of time series of atmospheric pollutants PM2.5.
Key words〗Wavelet transform; Variance analysis; PM2.5; Time series; Periodicity; Beijing
〖基金〗北京市属高等学校高层次人才引进与培养——“长城学者”培养计划项目“基于无线传感器网络的城市空气质量实时监测系统研究”基金资助项目(CIT&TCD20130320)
 
〖篇 名〗强厄尔尼诺事件对我国东部地区冬季空气质量影响的研究
〖作 者〗张良瑜1,2,陆晓波1,2,杨丽莉1,2,丁峰1,2,朱志锋1,2,芮冬梅1,2
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境监测中心站;2.江苏省环境保护城市空气环境污染预警监测重点实验室
〖摘 要〗通过对2015年12月我国东部地区空气污染状况及其与强厄尔尼诺事件的内在关联性研究分析,结果表明:与2014年同期相比,2015年12月我国长江中下游及其以北地区,尤其京津冀及其周边省份的空气质量偏差,而华南及西南地区空气质量偏好;2014—2016年的厄尔尼诺事件是自20世纪有观测以来最强的1次厄尔尼诺事件,赤道中东太平洋海表温度的异常偏高,通过海气相互作用引起东亚大槽减弱,我国东部低层出现南风异常,造成冬季风强度明显减弱及华南地区降水增多,成为2015年12月我国东部空气质量发生异常变化的重要客观因素。
〖关键词〗厄尔尼诺;空气质量;冬季风;东部地区
Abstract〗This study examines the characteristics of air pollution of eastern China in December 2015 and the inherent relevance with El Nino. The results indicated that the air quality in December 2015 was poorer than that in December 2014 in the middle and lower reaches of  Yangtze River and the north part of the region, especially in JingJinJi region and surrounding provinces while the opposite happened in southern China and southwestern China. According to the records starting from the 20th century, the El Nino event from 2014 to 2016 was the strongest one. When the sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial central and eastern Pacific got warmer, the East Asia trough became weakened and abnormal south wind in eastern China were caused by the airsea interaction which led to obvious decrease of the monsoon and increase of the rainfall in southern China, and further induced the air quality anomaly of eastern China in December 2015.
Key words〗 El Nino; Air quality; Winter monsoon; The Eastern China
〖基金〗江苏省科技支撑计划专项基金资助项目(BE2014602);南京市环保科研基金资助项目(201507)
 
〖篇 名〗1961—2012年长江三角洲地区霾日气候特征及变化分析
〖作 者〗温康民1,2,史军2,虞琴1
〖机 构〗1.上海应用技术大学生态技术与工程学院 ;2.上海市气候中心
〖摘 要〗利用长三角地区123个气象站1961—2012年逐日4次能见度和日平均相对湿度数据,对霾与气象条件关系进行分析。结果表明:长三角周边地区多年平均年霾日数大部分在0 d~25 d之间,中部地区在25 d~75 d之间,浙江北方中部的极个别城市在100 d~125 d之间;长三角地区霾日呈现为冬季多、夏季少、春秋季居中的特点;长三角地区年均霾日及四季霾日均呈极显著的增加趋势,其中浙江省中北部地区的年霾日及四季霾日增加速率最大,长三角地区平均年霾日以每十年9.23 d极显著增加;年代际上,年及春秋冬季霾日逐年代递增,而夏季则在20世纪70年代后递增。
〖关键词〗霾;气候特征;季节和年代际变化;长江三角洲地区
Abstract〗The longterm haze days from 1961 to 2012 were reconstructed by using daily average relative humidity and visibility of 123 meteorological stations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the relationship between the haze and the meteorological conditions were analyzed. The average haze days for many years in most surrounding areas of YRD were between 0 d~25 d, the central regions were between 25 d~75 d, very few cities in the middle of north Zhejiang were between 100 d~125 d. The haze days in YRD appeared more in winter, less in summer, spring and autumn were mediate. In the past 52 years, the annual haze days and seasonal haze days increased very significantly, the annual haze days of YRD increased very significantly with the rate of 9.23 d in ten years. And the interdecadal characteristic showed that the yearly, spring, autumn, winter haze days increased from 1960s, the summer increased from 1970s.
Key words〗 Haze; Climatic characteristics; Seasonal and decadal changes; Yangtze River Delta region
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41571044和41001283);中国气象局气候变化专项基金资助项目(CCSF201503)
 
〖篇 名〗淮南市PM2.5中PAHs污染特征及来源分析
〖作 者〗胡煜1,郑刘根1*,程桦1,陈永春2,杨叶1,葛业君1,孔令健1
〖机 构〗1.安徽大学资源与环境工程学院,矿山环境修复与湿地生态安全协同创新中心;2.煤炭生态环境保护国家工程实验室
〖摘 要〗通过采集淮南市6个功能区四季的PM2.5样品,运用GC-MS仪测定样品中PAHs含量并分析其主要来源。结果表明:该市PM2.5中PAHs质量浓度年均值为31.06 ng/m3,呈现冬季污染程度最重,夏季最轻,采矿区>商业区>工业区>文教区>居民区>对照区的特征;夏季PAHs以3环和4环为主,春、秋、冬季以4环、5环和6环为主;6个功能区均以4环PAHs为主;PAHs主要来源为煤燃烧、机动车尾气排放、生物质燃烧及焦炉挥发,其中燃煤和机动车尾气污染贡献最大。
〖关键词〗多环芳烃;污染特征;来源分析;PM2.5;淮南
Abstract〗PM2.5 samples were collected during four seasons in six functional zones of Huainan, and 16 PAHs were analyzed by GCMS. The results showed that the annual average concentration of the total PAHs (ΣPAHs) was 31.06 ng/m3. The distribution of PAHs in each season was that PAHs pollution was the most serious in winter and slightest in summer. In each functional zone, PAHs pollution presented a trend of mining areas>commercial areas>industrial areas>educational areas>residential areas>contrast areas. The percentages of 3ring and 4ring PAHs were highest in summer whereas 4ring to 6ring PAHs were the main in other seasons. Additionally, the main PAHs were 4ring in all of the functional zones. Principal component analysis suggested that PAHs were mainly influenced by vehicle emissions, coal and biomass combustion and coking, among which vehicle emissions and coal combustion were the two primary contributors.
Key words〗PAHs; Pollution characteristics; Source identification; PM2.5; Huainan
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41373108);安徽省国土资源科技基金资助项目(2013-K-07);淮北矿业(集团)科技攻关基金资助项目(2014-HBKJ-01);煤矿生态环境保护国家工程实验室科技攻关基金资助项目(HNKY-JT-JS2013-41)
 
〖篇 名〗徐州地区地下水中内分泌干扰物的监测与风险评估
〖作 者〗杜娟,胡红娟,杨靖,李朝,韩炜,朱歆颖
〖机 构〗徐州市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗采用液相色谱-串联质谱法测定徐州地区地下水中内分泌干扰物,并用雌二醇当量EEQ计算法和风险熵RQ计算法分别对其活性和生态风险水平分析评价。结果表明,徐州地区地下水中不含雌酮(E1)、雌二醇(E2)、雌三醇(E3)、炔雌醇(EE2)等内分泌干扰物,只含有双酚A(BPA),且最高值达26.45 ng/L,提出应把BPA作为控制重点。
〖关键词〗内分泌干扰物;双酚A;液相色谱-串联质谱法;风险评价;地下水;徐州
Abstract〗The concentration of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in groundwater in Xuzhou were determined by LCMS, and their estrogenic activities and ecological risk were evaluated by estradiol equivalency (EEQ) and risk quotient (RQ), respectively. Except bisphenol A, estrone, estradiol, estriol and 17αethinylestradiol were undetected. The maximum concentration of BPA was 26.45 ng/L of all sampling sites. Therefore, BPA  should be controlled primarily .
Key words〗Endocrine disrupters; Bisphenol A; LCMS/MS; Risk assessment; Groundwater; Xuzhou
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研课题基金资助项目(2013033)
 
〖篇 名〗固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定河水中的多环芳烃
〖作 者〗王钊,张俊,许维,孟宪智,崔文彦,张世禄,徐铭霞
〖机 构〗水利部海河水利委员会,海河流域水环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗采用固相萃取富集河水样品中15种多环芳烃(PAHs),并用高效液相色谱法测定,通过优化萃取条件和仪器条件,使该方法在10.0 μg/L~500 μg/L范围内线性良好,相关系数R2>0.99。方法检出限为3.70 ng/L~27.2 ng/L,标准溶液平行测定7次RSD在10%以内,空白水样的加标回收率为39.3%~109%。
〖关键词〗多环芳烃;固相萃取;高效液相色谱法;河水 
Abstract〗A solidphase extraction(SPE)high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of 15 PAHs in river water. By optimizing the extraction conditions and instrument parameters, the results showed good linearity in 10.0 μg/L~500 μg/L with the correlation coefficient R2>0.99. The detection limits of 15 PAHs were 3.70 ng/L~27.2 ng/L. The recoveries of standard addition for real water samples ranged from 39.3% to 109%. The relative standard deviations of 7 times parallel determination of standard solution were less than 10%
Key words〗PAHs; Solidphase extraction(SPE); High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); River
〖基金〗国家国际科技合作专项基金资助项目(2013DFA71340);国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2012ZX07203-002);海河流域水质监测基金资助项目(1261520411631)
 
〖篇 名〗顶空气相色谱法测定浓海水中挥发性卤代烃
〖作 者〗刘静,曾兴宇,周东星,赵静红,潘献辉
〖机 构〗国家海洋局天津海水淡化与综合利用研究所
〖摘 要〗采用顶空法分离并富集海水淡化排放的浓海水样品,用气相色谱法测定样品中的挥发性卤代烃,通过优化顶空时间、顶空温度、水样盐度等条件,提高顶空富集效率,使方法在2.00 μg/L~100 μg/L范围内线性良好,相关系数均>0.999,方法检出限为0.019 μg/L~0.052 μg/L。标准溶液平行6次测定结果的RSD为3.9%~9.6%,加标回收率为80.5%~125%。
〖关键词〗挥发性卤代烃;顶空;气相色谱法;海水
Abstract〗A method was developed for determining volatile halogenated hydrocarbons   from desalinated seawater discharge by headspace gas chromatography. Determination parameters, such as headspace time, headspace temperature and salinity were discussed. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 in concentration range of 2.00 μg/L to 100 μg/L. The method detection limits were 0.019 μg/L~0.052 μg/L. The RSDs were 3.9%~9.6%. The recoveries were in the range of 80.5% to 125% by standard addition method.
Key words〗Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons; Headspace; Gas chromatography; Seawater
〖基金〗海洋公益性行业科研专项基金资助项目(201305039);国家海洋局业务化基金资助项目 (1511112000005 )
 
〖篇 名〗XAD-7吸附-毛细管柱气相色谱法测定工作场所空气中乙二醇
〖作 者〗朱月芳1,朱剑禾1,秦宏兵1,魏蓝2*,徐嘉玥3
〖机 构〗1.苏州市环境监测中心站 ;2.苏州科技大学 ;3.苏州外国语学校
〖摘 要〗采用离子交换树脂XAD-7吸附-毛细管柱气相色谱法测定工作场所空气中乙二醇,结果表明,该方法在0 mg/L~1 116 mg/L范围内线性良好,方法检出限为0.88 mg/L,当采样体积为7.5 L时,最低检出质量浓度为0.11 mg/m3。乙二醇标准溶液测定结果的RSD为1.3%,空白加标回收率为80.1%~107%,方法的采集效率为98.0%。
〖关键词〗乙二醇;离子交换树脂;气相色谱法;工作场所空气
Abstract〗The method of determining ethylene glycol in the air of workplace was established by ion exchange resin XAD7 adsorptioncapillary column gas chromatography. Experimental results showed good linear relationship in the range of 0 mg/L~1 116 mg/L and the lowest detection limit was 0.88 mg/L. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.11 mg/m3 when the sampling volume was 7.5 L. The relative standard deviation(RSD) of standard solution of ethylene glycol was 1.3%. The blank standard addition recoreries were between 80.1%and 107%, the collection efficiency was 98.0%.
Key words〗Ethylene glycol; Ion exchange resin; Gas chromatography; Workplace air
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(31570515);苏州市科技支撑计划基金资助项目(SS201421,SS201523);苏州市环保科技基金资助项目(2015-3)
 
〖篇 名〗地表水中SVOCs和氨基甲酸酯类农药同步萃取技术的探讨
〖作 者〗陈贝1,张胜军2,冯元群2,王静2,叶伟红2,王成2,刘劲松1,2*
〖机 构〗1.浙江工业大学,化学工程学院 ;2.浙江省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗采用大体积固相萃取富集地表水中SVOCs和氨基甲酸酯类农药,再以气相色谱-质谱和超高效液相色谱-串联质谱联用对目标物定性定量。通过优化固相萃取条件,使SVOCs在0.500 mg/L~10.0 mg/L之间,氨基甲酸酯类农药在1.00 μg/L~100 μg/L之间线性良好,方法检出限为0.002 μg/L~0.009 μg/L,加标回收率分别为70.5%~105%和78.5%~124%。用该方法测定某流域地表水,结果邻苯二甲酸酯类物质、多环芳烃类、酚类、硝基苯环类化合物等SVOCs,以及克百威、仲丁威等氨基甲酸酯类农药检出。
〖关键词〗半挥发性有机物;氨基甲酸酯类农药;固相萃取;气相色谱-质谱法;超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法;地表水
Abstract〗A simultaneous extraction and determination method was developed by coupling high capacity solid phase extraction with gas chromatographymass spectrometry(GC/MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry(UPLCMS/MS) for semivolatile organic compounds(SVOCs) and carbamates pesticides in surface water. The average recoveries of SVOCs ranged from 70.5% to 105% and the detection limits were between 0.002 μg/L and 0.009 μg/L. The recoveries of carbamates ranged from 78.5% to 124%. Some SVOCs and carbamate pesticides, such as phthalate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenols, nitrobenzene, carbofuran, bassa and so on were detected in surface water by this method.
Key words〗Semivolatile organic compounds; Carbamates; Solid phase extraction; Gas chromatographymass spectrometry; Ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry; Surface water
〖基金〗浙江省科技厅基金资助项目(2014C03026);浙江省环保厅基金资助项目(2014A011)
 
〖篇 名〗不同藻密度条件下铜绿微囊藻与大型溞的相互影响
〖作 者〗徐鑫李,王国祥*,李时银
〖机 构〗南京师范大学环境学院,江苏省水土环境生态修复工程实验室,江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心
〖摘 要〗通过设置模拟摄食试验,使用铜绿微囊藻藻液及滤液对大型溞同时进行急性毒理试验,探讨了不同藻密度条件下铜绿微囊藻与大型溞之间的相互影响。结果表明,大型溞的摄食行为对铜绿微囊藻的生长有抑制,抑制作用随藻密度升高而下降,中、低藻密度(1.01×108 mL-1、1.01×107 mL-1)下的抑制率分别为54.6%、65.7%,高密度(1.01×109 mL-1)下的抑制率为29.7%。同时,铜绿微囊藻对大型溞有毒性作用,在毒理试验中,藻液组24 h和48 h的LC50值分别为0.455×107 mL-1和0.036×107 mL-1,滤液组24 h和48 h的LC50值分别为1.299×107 mL-1和0.179×107 mL-1。藻液组的LC50值明显低于滤液组,结合镜检表明,大型溞摄食铜绿微囊藻,铜绿微囊藻对大型溞的毒性影响以胞内毒素为主。在藻-溞微生态系统中,当藻密度低时,大型溞种群对铜绿微囊藻的去除效果显著,藻细胞被摄食殆尽后大型溞迅速死亡;当藻密度适中时,大型溞种群对铜绿微囊藻的去除效果良好,存活时间最长;当藻密度高时,大型溞种群受藻毒素强烈影响,短时间内死亡殆尽,对铜绿微囊藻的去除效果差。
〖关键词〗铜绿微囊藻;大型溞;抑制试验;毒性试验
Abstract〗In this paper, the mutual influence between Microcystis aeruginosa and Daphnia magna under the condition of different algal densities was discussed through the simulation feeding test and toxicology test. The results showed that the grazing behaviour of D. Magna had inhibitory effect on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, and the inhibition decreased with the algal density increase. The inhibition rates were 65.7%, 54.6% and 29.7% at low, medium and high algal density (which were 1.01×107 mL-1、1.01×108 mL-1 and 1.01×109 mL-1 respectively). Meanwhile, Microcystis aeruginosa had toxic effects on D. Magna. In the toxicity test, the 24 h LC50 and 48 h LC50 of algae liquid group were 0.455×107 mL-1 and 0.036×107 mL-1. The 24 h LC50 and 48 h LC50 of filtrate group were 1.299×107 mL-1 and 0.179×107 mL-1.〖JP〗 The half lethal concentration of the algae liquid group were significantly lower than that of filtrate group. Microscopic examination revealed that intracellular toxin tended to be the main factor for Microcystis aeruginosa affecting D. Magna. In the ecosystem of Microcystis 〖JP3〗aeruginosa and D. Magna, the removal effect of Microcystis aeruginosa by D. Magna was remarkable under the condition of low algal density. 〖JP〗〖FL)〗
D. magna quickly died when the algal cells being eaten up. Under the condition of medium algal density, the removal effect was fine and the D. Magna survived longest. Under the condition of high algal density, D. Magna was strongly influenced by Microcystis aeruginosa and died out in a short period of time, the removal effect was poor.
Key words〗Microcystis aeruginosa; Daphnia magna; Inhibition test; Toxicology test
 
〖篇 名〗土壤中铁氧化物对铅吸附-解吸的影响
〖作 者〗葛云思1,陈冉1,徐启新1,2*
〖机 构〗1.华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院;2.浙江天童森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站
〖摘 要〗选择上海地区广泛分布的水稻土,通过静态吸附平衡试验,比较土壤去除非晶质氧化铁和去除游离氧化铁后对Pb2+的吸附-解吸行为,采用数学模型拟合,探讨3种土壤的最佳拟合方程、最大吸附的理论值和亲和能力,进而研究非晶质氧化铁和游离氧化铁对Pb2+吸附-解吸的影响。结果表明,去除氧化铁后吸附能力和亲和能力均减弱,原土的最大吸附量为29.21 g/kg,非晶质氧化铁的贡献值为3.52 g/kg,游离氧化铁的贡献值为 8.32 g/kg。
〖关键词〗铅;非晶质氧化铁;游离氧化铁;吸附;解吸;土壤
Abstract〗Through the static adsorption experiments on selected paddy soil  distributed widely in Shanghai, the adsorptiondesorption of Pb by removal of amorphous iron oxide and free iron oxide were compared. According to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin mathematical models, the best fitting equation of 3 types of soils, the maximum adsorption theoretical value and affinity, the effect of  amorphous iron oxide and free iron oxide on the adsorptiondesorption of Pb were studied. The results showed that adsorption capacity and affinity were weakened after iron oxide removal, the maximum adsorption capacity of the original soil was 29.21 g/kg, with the contribution value of 3.52 g/kg by amorphous iron oxide and 8.32 g/kg by free iron oxide.
Key words〗Pb; Amorphous iron oxide; Free iron oxide; Adsorption; Desorption; Soils
〖基金〗上海市科委科技课题“建设场地污染土的快迅诊断与土工处置关键技术研究”支撑基金资助项目(13231202300)
 
〖篇 名〗移动通信基站架设方式对地面电磁辐射分布的影响
〖作 者〗姚颖,武攀峰*,陆炜
〖机 构〗南通市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗选取南通市具有代表性的9种不同架设类型的基站现场实测,分析其地面水平方向上的电磁辐射分布特征,以掌握基站不同架设方式对地面电磁辐射的影响。结果表明:天线架设方式不同,地面电磁辐射强度及分布存在一定差异,落地塔监测值整体低于楼顶塔。50 m范围内,功率密度值由大到小依次是楼顶抱杆>楼顶井字塔>楼顶角钢塔>楼顶景观塔>楼顶集束天线>楼顶拉线塔>楼顶四角塔>楼顶美化天线>落地塔,地面最大值普遍出现在距离基站20 m~30 m 范围。受天线架设高度、下倾角因素的影响,楼顶美化天线和楼顶角钢塔地面最大值点分别出现在距离基站60 m和70 m处,超出监测点位50 m布设范围
〖关键词〗电磁辐射;地面强度;移动通信基站;天线架设;水平分布
Abstract〗Nine representative base stations in Nantong have been selected for field investigating into the distribution of horizontal ground electromagnetic radiation. The result showed the intensity of electromagnetic radiation varied with the way the antenna being set up. The intensity of ground towers was generally lower than that of roof towers. Within the scope of 50 meters, the power density decreased in turn from  roof derrick, roof tictactoe tower, roof angle iron tower, roof view tower, roof bunch antenna, roof bracing wire tower, roof quadrangle tower, roof embellished antenna to ground tower. The maximum ground electromagnetic radiation intensity of all the towers mentioned above could be detected in 20~30 meters away from the base station. Due to the factors of height and downward inclination angle, the maximum intensity of roof embellished antenna and roof angle iron tower could be detected in 60 and 70 meters away, respectively, which were beyond the normal inspection point 50 meters.
Key words〗Electromagnetic radiation; Ground intensity; The mobile communication base station; Antenna construction; Horizontal distribution
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研基金资助项目(2014030);南通市科技计划-社会事业科技创新与示范基金资助项目(HS2014022);南通市“二二六工程”培养对象科研基金资助项目(2013007)
 
〖篇 名〗煤电项目竣工环保验收监测二氧化硫排放总量问题浅探
〖作 者〗田志仁
〖机 构〗中国环境监测总站
〖摘 要〗将29个煤电项目验收监测核算的二氧化硫排放总量与环保行政主管部门批复的总量控制指标作对比,从运行负荷、脱硫效率、燃煤煤质等方面分析了二者数值存在较大差异的原因。建议在验收监测期间要求企业按环评设计值控制各项参数,并将验收监测总量核算结果作为排污许可或日常监管的参照,进一步强化总量核查与总量控制,推行排污许可证制度。
〖关键词〗煤电项目;竣工环保验收监测;二氧化硫;排放总量;控制指标
Abstract〗The paper performed statistical analyses of SO2total emission data in 29 coal power construction projects, including calculation results in acceptance monitoring and control indicators from environmental protection administrative department. The reasons of the great deviation between two data were preliminary analyzed, such as operating load, sulfur removal efficiency and coal property. The paper advised that the companies should control operational parameters as designed in EIA during the process of acceptance monitoring. Also the total emission data calculated in acceptance monitoring should be a reference to pollutant discharge permit or daily supervision. That could further strengthen the verification and control of total emission, and promote the progress of the discharge permit system.
Key words〗Coal power construction projects; Environmental acceptance monitoring; Sulfur dioxide; Total emission; Control indicators