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2017年第1期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2017-02-21 08:54  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

2017年第1期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
 
生态风险评价研究进展综述..........................................曾建军,邹明亮,郭建军,等(1)
土壤重(类)金属消解方法的研究进展................................吕明超,肖荣波,徐梦劼,等(6)
公路隧道内运动汽车尾气污染扩散数值仿真研究........................张金贵,贾德生,张东省,等(11)
淮南市大气颗粒物污染特征研究..............................................杨叶,郑刘根,程桦(16)
喀斯特地区贵州铝厂周边植物对金属元素的监测能力........................王晓静,王智慧,张朝晖(21)
呼伦湖不同季节水质现状评价及主要影响因子分析........................付尧,贾克力,梁丽娥,等(25)
再生水补给下城市景观水体沉积物氮污染特征与评价..........................马永明,郭红兵,陈荣(30)
苏中地区小麦籽粒重金属含量水平及健康风险..................................朱昊,吴春发,陈宜(35)
北京市高碑店污水处理厂工况遥感监测.................................冯爱萍,王雪蕾,吴传庆,等(39)
固相萃取-UPLC-MS/MS法测定水中全氟化合物...............................张一,王磊,王佳璇,等(43)
塞曼原子吸收光谱法测定固定污染源废气中的汞........................宋祖华,高蓓蕾,张迪生,等(47)
固相微萃取-气相色谱法测定水中甲拌磷及其代谢产物残留...............钱宗耀,刘河疆,张维维,等(50)
燃煤电厂烟气颗粒物分级测定与分析..................................段玖祥,李小龙,易玉萍,等(53)
红枫湖水体中碳的时空分布特征分析..................................腾明德,高庚申,谢蔚嵩,等(57)
百花湖沉积物与修复植物中重金属形态的初步分析..............................高婧,梁龙超,陈卓(61)
大气环境无人机监测方法研究..........................................李志强,张晓旭,刘玲,等(65)
污染源自动监测设备动态管控系统技术及应用..........................徐薇薇,刘常永,王增国,等(69)
 
主要文章中英文摘要
〖篇 名〗生态风险评价研究进展综述
〖作 者〗曾建军,邹明亮,郭建军,李凯,杨超,陈冠光,岳东霞*
〖机 构〗兰州大学资源与环境学院
〖摘 要〗在介绍生态风险评价意义的基础上,简要回顾了国外生态风险评价研究的发展历程,着重论述了现阶段国内生态风险评价的重点研究领域,包括生态风险评价指标体系建立与评价标准确定的探讨、水环境化学生态风险评价、区域生态风险评价、景观生态风险评价、流域生态风险评价,以及“3S”技术在生态风险评价中的应用。归纳了生态风险评价的方法学和评价模型的选择等重要技术手段,并针对目前存在的问题及薄弱环节,提出了未来研究的发展趋势和需要解决的关键问题。
〖关键词〗生态风险评价;评价方法学;评价模型
Abstract〗Based on the introduction of the meaning of ecological risk assessment, this paper reviewed the domestic and abroad research progress and the key areas of ecological risk assessment, including the establishment of ecological evaluation index system and the confirmation of evaluation criteria, ecological risk assessment in water environmental chemistry, regional ecological risk assessment, landscape ecological risk assessment, watershed ecological risk assessment and “3S” technology in ecological risk assessment. It summarized the important technological means in selecting assessment methodology and model, the developing trend and the key issues that need to be urgently resolved in future research aiming at the existing problems and weak links in ecological risk assessment.
Key words〗Ecological risk assessment; Assessment methodology; Assessment model
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(No.41671516,No.51369003);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(LZUJBKY-2015-K10);甘肃省国际科技合作专项基金资助项目(1604WKCA002)
 
〖篇 名〗土壤重(类)金属消解方法的研究进展
〖作 者〗吕明超1,2,肖荣波1,徐梦劼3,董敏刚1,邓一荣1,宋静2*,林龙勇1,韩存亮1
〖机 构〗1.广东省环境科学研究院 ;2.中国科学院土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室,南京土壤研究所 ;3.华南农业大学资源环境学院
〖摘 要〗综述了目前国内外土壤重(类)金属的消解方法及相关标准,分析了各种方法的优缺点。指出传统的电热板消解法已逐渐被淘汰,微波消解法应用广泛却存在一定的局限性,全自动石墨消解法自动化程度高,适合大批量样品前处理,应用前景良好。提出相对于加入氢氟酸的混酸消解法获得的土壤重(类)金属全量,王水消解法获得的土壤重(类)金属总环境有效态与生物有效性相关性更好,研究者可根据需要选择合适的消解方法。
〖关键词〗土壤;重(类)金属;消解方法
Abstract〗Domestic and abroad digestion methods and criteria of heavy metal(loid)s in soil were reviewed, and the respective advantages and disadvantages were summed up in this paper. It pointed out that the traditional electric plate digestion method was gradually eliminated. Microwave digestion method has been widely used, but there are some limitations. The automatic graphite digestion method has a high degree of automation and is suitable for great amount of sample pretreatment. Results showed that the total environmental available form of heavy metal by aqua regia digestion was better correlated with bioavailability than that by mixed acid digestion including hydrofluoric acid. Researchers can choose the appropriate digestion method to adapt to the needs of the study.
Key words〗Soils; Heavy metal(loid)s; Digestion method
〖基金〗国家科技支撑计划基金资助项目(2014BAC15B01);环保部公益性行业科研专项基金资助项目(201409042);广东省环境科学研究院第一期科技创新基金资助项目(PM-2014-001243)
 
〖篇 名〗公路隧道内运动汽车尾气污染扩散数值仿真研究
〖作 者〗张金贵1,贾德生2,张东省3,王博1*
〖机 构〗1.兰州大学资源环境学院,甘肃省环境污染预警与控制重点实验室;2.西安公路研究院;3.陕西省交通建设集团公司
〖摘 要〗利用计算流体力学(CFD)方法,结合标准k-ε湍流模型、Mixture混合多相流模型和动网格技术,数值仿真了公路隧道内运动汽车的尾气污染扩散,结果与实验测量值吻合较好。表明,在没有其他通风方式的公路隧道内,运动汽车排出的污染物主要分布在近地面;运动汽车后方会形成1条高速风带,对隧道内污染物纵向扩散具有关键作用。
〖关键词〗隧道;汽车尾气;污染扩散;动网格
Abstract〗In the paper, exhaust pollution diffusion of moving cars in highway tunnel was studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods combined the standard kε turbulence model, mixture multiphase model and the dynamic mesh technology. The results of simulation were consistent with the experimental results. It showed that exhaust pollutants of moving cars mainly distributed near the ground in the tunnel when on auxiliary ventilation was used. There was a highspeed wind belt behind the moving cars, which played an important role on pollutants longitudinal diffusing along the tunnel.
Key words〗 Tunnel; Vehicle exhaust; Pollution diffusion; Dynamic mesh
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(50906036);教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划基金资助项目(NCET-10-0469);陕西省交通运输厅交通科研基金资助项目(15-16k);中国工程院咨询研究基金资助项目(2015-06-XZ-01)
 
〖篇 名〗淮南市大气颗粒物污染特征研究
〖作 者〗杨叶,郑刘根*,程桦
〖机 构〗安徽大学资源与环境工程学院,矿山环境修复与湿地生态安全协同创新中心
〖摘 要〗2014年7月和2015年1月分别系统监测淮南市6个功能区夏、冬季大气颗粒物(TSP、PM10、PM2.5)质量浓度并分析其时空分布特征。结果表明:采矿区和工业区污染较严重;采矿区主要受采煤、运输等人为活动的影响,工业区受工业排放影响较大,商业区主要以汽车尾气排放为主,居民区和文教区则以燃煤排放为主;夏季颗粒物浓度日变化趋势均呈现两边凸中间凹的特征,峰值分别出现在7:00和18:00,谷值出现在13:00左右,而冬季变化趋势波动较大。
〖关键词〗TSP;PM10;PM2.5;粒径分布;污染特征;淮南市
Abstract〗Mass concentration of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 was monitored in six functional areas including commercial area, cultural area, industrial area, residential area, mining area and control area in Huainan from July 2014 to January 2015. The results showed that: Mass concentration in mining area and industrial area were higher than that in other functional areas. Mining area was mainly affected by coal mining and transportation. Industrial area was influenced by industrial emissions. Commercial area was mainly affected by vehicle emissions, and residential area and cultural area were given priority to coal emissions. The concentration of particulate matter increased at 7:00 and 18:00 and decreased at about 13:00 in summer. The data had a large fluctuation in winter.
Key words〗TSP; PM10; PM2.5; Size distribution; Pollution characteristics; Huainan
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41373108);安徽省国土资源科技基金资助项目(2013-K-07);淮北矿业(集团)科技攻关基金资助项目(2014-HBKJ-01);煤矿生态环境保护国家工程实验室科技攻关基金资助项目(HNKY-JT-JS2013-41)
 
〖篇 名〗喀斯特地区贵州铝厂周边植物对金属元素的监测能力
〖作 者〗王晓静1,王智慧2,张朝晖1*
〖机 构〗1.贵州师范大学,贵州省山地环境信息系统与生态环境保护重点实验室;2.贵州师范大学生命科学学院
〖摘 要〗通过对喀斯特地区贵州铝厂周边农作物(白菜、玉米和豆角)、蕨类(贯众)和苔藓(双色真藓)中的Al、Fe、Pb和Ca等金属元素的质量比检测,并按生活区、农田区、工业区统计分析,结果表明:5种植物中Al和Fe的质量比均表现为工业区>生活区>农田区,Pb的质量比均表现为生活区>农田区>工业区,而植物基质土壤中Ca的质量比受岩溶环境的影响相对其他元素规律性不强。通过对比分析不同植物对Al、Fe、Pb、Ca的富集系数,结果表明:双色真藓、贯众对Al、Fe、Pb的富集能力相对较强,由于贯众数量稀少,无法提供科研实验所需用量,故双色真藓更适合作为该地区环境监测的指示植物。在这5种植物中,只有Fe与Pb之间均呈极显著正相关,二者之间存在协同效应。
〖关键词〗金属元素;农作物;蕨类和藓类;喀斯特地区;贵州铝厂
Abstract〗The content of metallic elements Al, Fe,Pb and Ca in crops, ferns and moss around Guizhou Aluminum Factory in karst region were studied. The results showed that Al content in 5 plants from the researched area were in order of industrial area>residence area>farmland area. Fe content was in the same order, while Pb in order of residence area>farmland area>industrial area. Compared to other elements, Ca content in soil matrix had no strong regularity affected by karst environment. Comparing the enrichment coefficient of Al, Fe, Pb and Ca, the enrichment capability of  Bryum dichotomum and Cyrtomium fortunei were relatively strong. Scientific research could not be done because Cyrtomium fortunei was few, Bryum dichotomum was applied to be the indicator plant for regional environmental monitoring. In these five plants, Fe and Pb showed significant positive correlation. There were synergies between Fe and Pb.
Key words〗 Metal elements; Crops; Fern and moss; Karst region; Guizhou Aluminum Factory
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(31360043)
 
〖篇 名〗呼伦湖不同季节水质现状评价及主要影响因子分析
〖作 者〗付尧,贾克力*,梁丽娥,孙标,史小红,赵胜男
〖机 构〗内蒙古农业大学水利与土木建筑工程学院
〖摘 要〗通过2014—2015年期间4次对呼伦湖水质进行监测,评价不同季节水体中TN、TP和Chla的时空分布特征及水体的富营养化状态,并分析影响水质变化的主要因素。结果表明,4个季节中呼伦湖水体中TN、TP质量浓度超标较严重,Chla质量浓度随季节变化明显。空间分布规律为TN由湖四周向湖心扩散再到四周;TP春、夏季基本保持稳定,秋—冬季由湖心向四周转移;Chla呈现由南—北—东—东北的变化趋势。呼伦湖春、夏、秋季呈现轻度富营养化,冬季呈现中营养化。水体主要受富营养化、盐化和有机物污染控制。
〖关键词〗水质;富营养化;影响因素;呼伦湖
Abstract〗Water quality of Hulun Lake was monitored four times from 2014 to 2015 for evaluating TN,TP and Chlas seasonal spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and lake eutrophication, and analyzing the main impact factors. The results showed that the concentration of TN and TP were seriously beyond the standard at all seasons. Chla concentration revealed significant seasonal variation. TN diffused from around the lake to the middle and then back to around. TP remained stable during spring and summer, and diffused from the middle to around of the lake in autumn and winter. Chla varied in the trend of southnortheastnortheast. The lake was slightly eutrophicated in spring, summer and autumn but moderately eutrophicated in winter. The water quality of the lake was mainly affected by eutrophication, salinization and organic pollutants.
Key words〗Water quality; Eutrophication; Influence factors; Hulun Lake
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(51339002,51269017,51169011,51409288,51509133)
 
〖篇 名〗再生水补给下城市景观水体沉积物氮污染特征与评价
〖作 者〗马永明1,郭红兵1,2,陈荣2*
〖机 构〗1.中国恩菲工程技术有限公司;2.西安建筑科技大学环境与市政工程学院,西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室
〖摘 要〗选取昆明翠湖不同功能区表层沉积物,分析其氮的赋存形态与质量比分布特征,探讨上覆水、间隙水与沉积物各指标间的响应关系及污染现状分析评价。结果表明:翠湖表层沉积物总氮(TN)质量比为564 mg/kg~4 602 mg/kg,且沿水流方向增大;可转化态氮(TTN)含量变化差异性较小,以强氧化剂可提取态氮(SOEF-N)和强碱可提取态氮(SAEF-N)为主;上覆水溶解氧(DO)、氧化还原电位(ORP)、pH值、TN和间隙水pH值、氮盐、COD及沉积物氮赋存形态对翠湖表层沉积物中各形态氮的含量分布与变化存在响应关系。
〖关键词〗氮污染特征;沉积物;再生水补给;城市景观水体;昆明翠湖
Abstract〗In this paper, the existing species and content distribution of nitrogen in sediments from different functional area in Cuihu Lake of Kunming were analyzed for discussing the indicators response relationship between overlying water and interstitial water and sediment, and evaluating the current pollution situation. Results showed that TN content in surface sediment were 564 mg/kg~4 602 mg/kg and increased along the flow direction. TTN content, with SOEFN and SAEFN dominated, varied little. The response relationship existed among dissolved oxygen, oxidation reduction potential, pH, total nitrogen in overlying water, and pH, nitrogen, COD in interstitial water, and the nitrogen species in sediment.
Key words〗 Nitrogen pollution characteristic; Sediment; Replenishment with reclaimed water; Urban landscape water;  Cuihu Lake of Kunming
〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2012ZX07313001-002);陕西省青年科技新星基金资助项目(2013KJXX-55)
 
〖篇 名〗苏中地区小麦籽粒重金属含量水平及健康风险
〖作 者〗朱昊1,吴春发1*,陈宜2
〖机 构〗1.南京信息工程大学应用气象学院 ;2.扬州市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗通过随机采集苏中地区43组农田土壤和小麦籽粒样本,测定其中Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd含量,分析小麦籽粒的重金属富集能力及其影响因素,并评估食用本地产小麦的健康风险。结果表明:研究区土壤样品中Cd超标率为14.0%;小麦籽粒样品中Cd、Pb超标率分别为4.65%、27.9%。小麦籽粒对重金属富集能力强弱依次为Zn>Cd>Cu>Pb,且其对Cd的富集能力与土壤pH值呈显著负相关(P<0.01,r=-0.41),需关注土壤酸化对小麦籽粒Cd富集的影响。不同暴露人群食用本地产小麦风险系数(HQ)和风险指数(HI)均在可接受水平内,若考虑其他暴露途径,仍有可能危害当地居民健康。
〖关键词〗重金属;小麦;污染状况;健康风险;苏中地区
Abstract〗In this study, 43 pairs of agricultural topsoil and wheat grain samples were collected from the central region of Jiangsu for determining the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, analyzing the wheat grains enrichment abilities to the four heavy metals and  the its influence factors, and estimating the potential health risks. The results showed that 14.0% of Cd samples in the researched area exceeded the national standard. The overstandard rate of Cd and Pb in wheat grain samples were 4.65% and 27.9%. Heavy metal enrichment ability of wheat gains decreased in the order of Zn>Cd>Cu>Pb, and Cd enrichment ability had significant negative correlation with the pH of soil(P<0.01,r=-0.41). Therefore, more attention should be paid to the the problem of Cd in wheat gains that caused by soil acidification. Both hazard quotients (HQ) and hazard index (HI) to different exposure people were within the safety range. However, there still has been harm to the exposure peoples health considering other exposure ways.
Key words〗Heavy metals; Wheat; Pollution situation; Health risk; The central region of Jiangsu
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研课题“江苏省农业用地土壤环境质量标准研究” 基金资助项目(201264)
 
〖篇 名〗北京市高碑店污水处理厂工况遥感监测
〖作 者〗冯爱萍1,王雪蕾1,吴传庆1*,王洪亮2,朱利1,殷守敬1,马万栋1
〖机 构〗1.环境保护部卫星环境应用中心 ;2.中国矿业大学地球科学与测绘学院
〖摘 要〗通过文献调研和数据搜集构建高碑店污水处理厂的基本信息库,利用GF-1/GF-2等高分辨率卫星遥感数据对2015年高碑店污水处理厂的运行状况进行动态监测。结果表明:GF-1号影像显示2015年2月16日和3月25日污水处理厂均有1个二沉池有藻类分布,疑似未正常投入使用;GF-2号影像显示9月2日污水处理厂有5个二沉池和部分曝气池的廊道有藻类分布,疑似未正常投入使用;3月和9月数据对比发现,西侧的8个污泥消化罐和3个污泥浓缩池均消失。该结果与临近时期的Google Earth影像显示情况相一致。
〖关键词〗污水处理厂;遥感;工况监测;北京市
Abstract〗A basic information database of Gaobeidian sewage treatment plant was built based on literature research, data collection and dynamic remote sensing monitoring on the plant working condition by GF1/GF2 highresolution satellites in 2015.The results showed that there were algae in a secondary sedimentation tank in the plant according to the images by GF1 on 16th February and 25th March 2015, and algae was found in 5 secondary sedimentation tanks and the aeration tank corridor by GF2 images on 2nd September, being suspected not working properly. 8 sludge digesters and 3 sludge concentrated tanks in the west part of the plant had vanished compared the data acquired in March and September. The results were consistent with the Google Earth images during the similar period.
Key words〗Sewage treatment plant; Remote sensing; Condition monitoring; Beijing
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41271349)
 
〖篇 名〗固相萃取-UPLC-MS/MS法测定水中全氟化合物
〖作 者〗张一,王磊*,王佳璇,李珍贤
〖机 构〗西安建筑科技大学环境与市政工程学院
〖摘 要〗水样中全氟辛酸、全氟辛烷磺酸钾、全氟丁酸、全氟丁烷磺酸经弱阴离子交换固相萃取柱富集净化后,用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定。通过优化样品前处理条件和仪器条件,使4种全氟化合物在0.05 μg/L~10.0 μg/L范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.998 9~0.999 9,方法检出限为0.27 ng/L~0.96 ng/L。空白水样3个质量浓度水平的加标回收率为73.1%~91.3%,6次测定结果的RSD为7.4%~14.3%。
〖关键词〗全氟化合物;固相萃取;超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法;水质
Abstract〗Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate acid, perfluorobutyric acid, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in water samples were concentrated and purified through WAX solid phase extraction cartridges. The ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was utilized to detect the target pollutants. By optimizing the conditions of pretreatment and detection, good linear relationships were observed in the range of 0.05 μg/L~10.0 μg/L with correlation coefficients from 0.998 9 to 0.999 9. The detection limits for the four perfluorinated organic compounds were in the range of 0.27 ng/L~0.96 ng/L.The recoveries of blank samples ranged from 73.1% to 91.3% with the relative standard deviations between 7.4% and 14.3%.
Key words〗Perfluorinated organic compounds; Solid phase extraction; UPLCMS/MS; Water quality
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(51278408);中国博士后科学基金资助项目(2015M580820)
 
〖篇 名〗塞曼原子吸收光谱法测定固定污染源废气中的汞
〖作 者〗宋祖华1,高蓓蕾2,张迪生1,马光军1,谢馨1,武中林1,欧阳夏骏1
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境监测中心站 ;2.江苏省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗用PMS 30B型汞采样器采集固定污染源废气,再用塞曼原子吸收汞分析仪测定样品中的汞,高、低浓度汞标准样品测定结果均在标准范围内,相对误差分别为0和4.3%。汞吸收管对高、低浓度含汞废气的穿透效率表明,当废气汞质量浓度达到mg/m3级别时,穿透率仅为1.3%。用该方法测定稳定工况固定污染源废气中的汞,6次测定结果的RSD为5.9%,方法检出限为1.04 ng,当采样体积为20 L时,检出限为0.05 μg/m3。实际监测表明,钢铁企业、燃煤电厂、垃圾焚烧厂废气中汞为0.07 μg/m3~1 031 μg/m3。
〖关键词〗汞;原子吸收法;固定污染源;废气
Abstract〗Mercury in stationary source emission was collected by PMS 30B sampler and determined by Zeeman atomic absorption mercury analyzer. The determination results of mercury standard samples with high and low concentrations were both within the scopes of the standard values, the relative error was 0 and 4.3% respectively. The penetration efficiency test on mercury absorption tube showed that when the mercury concentration reached mg/m3 level, the penetration rate was only 1.3%. Mercury in exhaust gas of stationary source was determined by this method, and the RSD was 5.9% in 6 results. When the sampling volume was 20 L, the detection limit was about 0.05 μg/m3. Mercury emission load from steel company,coalfired power plant and waste incineration plant ranged from 0.07 μg/m3~1 031 μg/m3 according to practical determination.
Key words〗Mercury; Atomic absorption spectrometry; Stationary source; Waste gas
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研“江苏省钢铁行业汞排放水平及总量研究”基金资助项目 (2014022)
 
〖篇 名〗固相微萃取-气相色谱法测定水中甲拌磷及其代谢产物残留
〖作 者〗钱宗耀,刘河疆,张维维,周俊*
〖机 构〗新疆农业科学院农业质量标准与检测技术研究所
〖摘 要〗采用固相微萃取技术富集水样中甲拌磷及其代谢产物残留,并用气相色谱法测定。通过优化试验条件,使该方法在0.05 mg/L~1.00 mg/L范围内线性良好,甲拌磷、甲拌磷亚砜和甲拌磷砜方法检出限分别为0.64 μg/L、36.1 μg/L、1.8 μg/L。用该方法测定无公害种植基地的灌溉水样品,3种农药残留均为未检出,水样的加标回收率为60.4%~85.7%,测定5次结果的RSD为3.4%~8.5%。
〖关键词〗甲拌磷;代谢产物;固相微萃取;气相色谱法;水质
Abstract〗The method of solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to enrich phorate and its metabolites in water samples, and the contents of phorate and its metabolites were determined by gas chromatography. The linear range of the method was 0.05 mg/L to 1.00 mg/L. The detection limit of phorate, phorate sulfoxide and phorate sulfone was 0.64 μg/L, 36.1 μg/L and 1.8 μg/L, respectively. The method was used to determine water samples from a pollutionfree planting base, 3 target pesticides were undetected. The relative standard deviation(RSD) for each pesticide in water samples were between 3.4%~8.5%, with the recoveries between 60.4%~85.7%.
Key words〗Phorate; Metabolites; SPME; GC; Water quality
〖基金〗新疆维吾尔自治区公益性科研院所基本科研业务基金资助项目(KY2015082)
 
〖篇 名〗燃煤电厂烟气颗粒物分级测定与分析
〖作 者〗段玖祥,李小龙,易玉萍,周道斌,李军状,严俊波
〖机 构〗国电科学技术研究院
〖摘 要〗采用分级撞击采样器(DPI)对燃煤电厂烟气颗粒物测定并分析,试验表明,PM10、PM2.5及PM1在湿除出口/烟囱入口的质量浓度分别为0.26 mg/m3~1.47 mg/m3、0.22 mg/m3~1.29 mg/m3、0.17 mg/m3~1.00 mg/m3。分析可知,除尘器后烟气颗粒物PM10中主要是PM2.5,而PM2.5~10占比低于35%;烟气经湿法脱硫后,PM2.5~10的比例进一步大幅降低,经湿式除尘器后,PM2.5~10的占比变化很小,而PM1~2.5的占比大幅降低。监测结果表明,湿式除尘器对烟气颗粒物的脱除效果优于湿法脱硫,而随着颗粒物粒径的减小,2种脱除设备的脱除效率均出现降低。
〖关键词〗颗粒物;撞击采样器;分级测定;燃煤电厂;烟气
Abstract〗DPI was adopted to determine and analyze the particulate matter in flue gas from coalfired power plants. The result showed that the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) outlet and chimney inlet were 0.26 mg/m3~1.47 mg/m3、0.22 mg/m3~1.29 mg/m3 and 0.17 mg/m3~1.00 mg/m3, respectively. PM2.5 dominated in PM10 and the mass fraction of PM2.5~10 was less than 35% after using Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP). The mass fraction of PM2.5~10 in PM10 declined greatly when Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization(WFGD) applied. PM2.5~10 mass fraction changed little and PM1~2.5 mass fraction decreased greatly when wet dust collector was used. Determination results indicated that the removal effect of WESP was better than WFGD, but both decreased with particle size diminution.
Key words〗Particulate matter; DPI; Fractional determination; Coalfired power plants; Flue gas
 
〖篇 名〗红枫湖水体中碳的时空分布特征分析
〖作 者〗滕明德,高庚申,谢蔚嵩,迟峰
〖机 构〗贵州省环境科学研究设计院
〖摘 要〗基于2013年8月、10月、11月及2014年3月在红枫湖5个表层水样采集点、3个分层水样采集点测定的总碳、无机碳、总有机碳及二氧化碳数据,结合当时的气象数据对碳的时空分布特征讨论分析。结果表明,虽然调查期间同时间相同水层各个水样采集点的上述4个指标差异并不明显,但同一时间不同分层水体及各水样采集点不同季节在碳分布上存在一定差异。温度越高,光照越长,生物活性越强,湖体碳被生物利用的比例越大,总碳、无机碳、总有机碳含量就越低,较强的生物活性也伴随更多的二氧化碳产生。上、下层水体因光与温度差异所导致的碳分布差异会因季节性翻湖而消失。
〖关键词〗总碳;无机碳;总有机碳;二氧化碳;分布特征;红枫湖
Abstract〗Based on the meteorological data and the data of total carbon, inorganic carbon, total organic carbon and carbon dioxide from 8 sample sites (5 sites for surface water sampling and 3 sites for different layer water sampling) in Hongfeng Lake at August, October, November in 2013, and March in 2014, the spatial and temporal characteristics of carbon in Hongfeng Lake were analyzed. There were no obvious differences between the concentration of total carbon, inorganic carbon, organic carbon and carbon dioxide in the same layer at the same time, but the differences exist between different layers and different periods. The ratio of carbon that was used by aquatic organism will be higher in higher temperature and stronger light intensity conditions, so in which condition, the concentration of total carbon, inorganic carbon, and total organic carbon appeared to be lower, and more carbon dioxide were produced by aquatic organism. The difference of carbon distribution between different layer accused by different temperature and lighting condition would disappear after a vertical water mixing when air temperature drawdown sharply.
Key words〗Total carbon; Inorganic carbon; Total organic carbon; Carbon dioxide; Distribution characteristics; Hongfeng Lake
〖基金〗贵州省科学技术基金资助项目(黔科合J字[2012]2208号)
 
〖篇 名〗百花湖沉积物与修复植物中重金属形态的初步分析
〖作 者〗高婧1,梁龙超2,陈卓2*
〖机 构〗1.贵州省疾病预防控制中心;2.贵州师范大学化学与材料科学学院
〖摘 要〗选用黑麦草(Lolium multiflorum Lam.)和紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)做盆栽试验,研究百花湖表层沉积物与植物体中重金属Cu、Zn、Cd的形态分布特征。结果表明:沉积物经植物修复后,3种重金属的可交换态均有所减少,而铁/锰态均有不同程度的增加,说明植物生长对重金属形态变化具有一定的影响;在2种植物体中,茎叶中的Cu主要以活性较高的水提取态存在,Zn主要以活性较低的醋酸提取态存在,Cd以氯化钠提取态为优势形态;相关性分析表明,黑麦草根部Cu的总量与沉积物中Cu的总量及可交换态和残渣态呈现显著的正相关,紫花苜蓿中Zn的总量与沉积物中Zn的不同形态有正或负的相关性。
〖关键词〗重金属形态;植物修复;黑麦草;紫花苜蓿;沉积物;百花湖
Abstract〗Pot experiments of Lolium multiflorum Lam. and Medicago sativa L. were conducted to study the phytoremediation of heavy metal (Cu、Zn、Cd) contaminated sediment in Baihua Lake. Results were: After phytoremediation, three kinds of heavy metalsion exchangeable form in sediment decreased, but Fe-Mn oxide form increased in different levels. The growth of plants had certain activation on heavy metal fraction changes. In stems and leaves of the two plants, Cu mainly existed as water extractable form with high activity, Zn existed as acetic acid extractable form with low activity, and Cd existed as NaCl extractable form. Comparing the two kinds of plants, Medicago sativa L. accounted for a larger proportion. There was a significant positive correlation between the total amount of Cu in the root of Lolium multiflorum Lam. and the total amount of Cu in sediment.
Key words〗Heavy metal fraction; Phytoremediation; Lolium multiflorum Lam; Medicago sativa L; Sediments; Baihua Lake
〖基金〗贵州省科技支撑计划“两湖一库底泥重金属迁移转化规律、生态风险评价及生态修复技术研究”基金资助项目[黔科合SY字(2011)3079];贵阳市科学技术计划“两湖一库沉积物磷和重金属的释放机制与原位控制技术研究”基金资助项目[(2010)筑科农合同字第5-2号]
 
〖篇 名〗大气环境无人机监测方法研究
〖作 者〗李志强1,2,3,4,张晓旭1,2,3,4*,刘玲1,2,3,4,周阳1,2,3,4,张丽娜1,2,3,4,吴岳1,2,3,4,白文娟1,2,3,4,李雨蒙1,2,3,4
〖机 构〗1.天津市环境保护科学研究院 ;2.天津市联合环保工程设计有限公司 ;3.天津市大气污染防治重点实验室 ;4.天津环科瞻云科技发展有限公司
〖摘 要〗目前地面常规大气监测手段难以对垂直方向污染源监测,也难以应对环境突发事件,采用无人机大气监测与数值模拟结合的方法可以解决该问题。实验开发了基于无人机平台的空气质量监测平台,采用数值模拟方法确定平台搭载方案,再对无人机监测系统得到的监测数据与数值模拟计算结果作对比分析,得到各项污染物浓度。分析了该方法存在的问题,提出了提高数据链路传输能力,开展无人机遥感系统相关环境质量评价方法学研究,开发精度高、质量轻的无人机大气监测吊舱,开展地面静止比对和飞行测量比对实验等建议。
〖关键词〗无人机;大气环境监测;遥感技术
Abstract〗It is difficult for conventional test to get pollution sources data from vertical monitoring and environmental emergency monitoring, because most air quality monitoring systems are usually ground monitoring based. The UAV platform and numerical simulation method can solve these problems. This study first developed an air quality monitoring system based on UAV, then determine the platform carrying scheme by numerical simulation calculation, and obtain the concentration of pollutants by comparison analysis of data from UAV and numerical simulation calculation. It pointed out the existent problems and possible development directions. It provided the basis for developing a UAV pod with high precision low mass, and carrying out the comparison experiments both in ground stationary and flight measurement.
Key words〗UAV platform; Atmospheric environmental monitoring; Remote sensing technology
〖基金〗天津市应用基础与前沿技术研究计划自然科学基金重点项目(13JCZDJC36100);院长基金资助项目(YZJJ-2015-005,YZJJ-2015-001)
 
〖篇 名〗污染源自动监测设备动态管控系统技术及应用
〖作 者〗徐薇薇,刘常永,王增国,张茂利,闫倩,石敬华*
〖机 构〗山东省环境信息与监控中心
〖摘 要〗针对污染源自动监测数据造假问题,提出了自动监测设备动态管控技术,研发了全智能数据采集设备与自动监测设备直接连接,将关键参数固化到数据采集设备中,实现了设备工作参数、运行状态和监测数据的“三同时”监控,并通过动态管控软件平台,提供自动监测设备状态标志、参数报警等功能。
〖关键词〗污染源;自动监测设备;动态管控
Abstract〗The issue of data fraud in pollution sources automatic monitoring is a major influencing factor to the quality of environmental management. To overcome this problem, a new intelligent data acquisition equipment was developed, which was connected to automatic check equipment and fixed the key parameters to this unit. The equipment working parameters, running status and the monitoring data could be supervised simultaneously. Moreover, based on the dynamic management and control software, it had the function of automatic monitoring equipment status identification and alarm.
Key words〗Pollution source; Automatic monitoring equipment; Dynamic management & control
〖基金〗山东省环境保护信息中心“一种污染源监控用数据采集传输装置”“一种污染源在线监控平台”专利基金资助项目(ZL 2014 2 0727635.7,ZL 2014 2 0728155.2)