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2017年第2期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2017-04-25 14:48  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

 2017年第2期目次及主要文章中英文摘要

 

基于移动终端设备的环境现场监测管理系统设计与应用.........................................易敏(1)

“互联网+”时代环境污染治理转型发展的问题与对策........................................郭志达(4)

烟尘烟气监测全程序质量监督评价方法研究...............................陈圆圆,邹本东,姜涛,等(7)

博斯腾湖矿化度遥感反演及空间分布特征研究.............姜红,玉素甫江·如素力,阿迪来·乌甫,等(11)

江苏省PM2.5质量浓度的时空变化格局模拟..............................李啸天,吴绍华,徐于月,等(16)

武汉市热岛强度分区与规划应对策略...........................................尹杰,詹庆明,梁婷(21)

长江南京段新兴污染物污染特征及风险评估.................................孙雨,丁建楠,卢婕,等(26)

黔江区饮用水源地水质模糊综合评价研究.................................姚靖,李清芳,张永江,等(31)

高尔夫球场农药使用情况调查及特征分析.....................................吴阿娜,怀红燕,汤琳(36)

弗罗里硅土净化和凝胶色谱净化在土壤苯并(a)芘测定中的应用................马可婧,张国祯,李小燕(41)

ICP-MS法测定南京市环境空气PM2.5中多种元素........................................杜青,张予燕(45)

气相色谱-串联质谱法测定水中己烯雌酚残留................................钱宗耀,张维维,刘河疆(50)

固相萃取-GC/MS法测定地表水中3-甲基吲哚.................................薛祥晔,鲜啟鸣,冯建昉(53)

氢氧自由基与长链烷烃反应产物的气相色谱质谱检测初探...............................曹冠楠,王静(56)

生物毒性试验在工业退役场地调查中的应用.................................陈奕,刘惠,宋立杰,等(59)

基于非洗井情况下地下水样品代表性探讨...................................喻颖,陆燕勤,杨洋,等(64)

石家庄大气中优先控制挥发性有机物筛选.................................高博,王淑娟,范莉茹,等(68)

 


〖篇 名〗基于移动终端设备的环境现场监测管理系统设计与应用

〖作 者〗易敏

〖机 构〗上海市环境监测中心

〖摘 要〗研究了基于移动终端设备的环境现场监测业务数据采集与管理,构建了面向现场监测业务需求的数据采集、存储和传输的业务流程管理,以及与实验室信息管理系统数据共享交互集成的现场监测业务管理和质量控制信息系统。以上海市环境监测中心的现场监测管理系统为例,展示了多媒体及GPS信息采集、仪器数据采集、监测结果录入、原始表单填报和监测布点等环境现场监测活动在移动终端设备上数据管理的具体应用实现。

〖关键词〗移动终端设备;现场监测管理系统;实验室信息管理系统;仪器数据采集

Abstract〗The acquisition and management of the environmental field monitoring data was analyzed based on mobile terminal equipment. The environmental field monitoring management system was constructed with the functions of data acquisition, storage and transmission. The system was also designed to be integrated with LIMS. Taking an example of the environmental field monitoring management system in Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, some monitoring operations such as instrument data acquisition, result recording, original form filling and monitoring site setting was demonstrated.

Key words〗Mobile terminal equipment; Field monitoring management system; LIMS; Instrument data acquisition

〖基金〗国家科技部重点研发计划专项“大气环境监测数据管理制度与共享机制研究”基金资助项目(2016YFC0201805)

 

〖篇 名〗“互联网+”时代环境污染治理转型发展的问题与对策

〖作 者〗郭志达

〖机 构〗大连交通大学经济管理学院

〖摘 要〗建立了“互联网+”与环境污染治理融合发展的概念模型,分析了“互联网+”时代环境污染治理存在的问题,并提出了提升治理人员技术能力与综合素质、加强网络宣传与信息发布、加强环保跨界联动与协调合作等建议。

〖关键词〗“互联网+”;环境污染治理;转型发展

Abstract〗The conceptual model integrated with “Internet +” and environmental pollution control was established, and issues of environmental pollution control in the “Internet +” era were analyzed. Some proposals were given to improve the administrator’s technical abilities and comprehensive quality, strengthen network publicity and information dissemination, and reinforce crossborder cooperation in environmental protection.

Key words〗“Internet+”; Environmental pollution control; Transformation and development

〖基金〗辽宁社会科学规划“辽宁环境污染第三方治理模式研究”“辽宁东部经济建设与生态建设协调发展研究”基金资助项目(L14AGL005,L13DJY086)

 

〖篇 名〗烟尘烟气监测全程序质量监督评价方法研究

〖作 者〗陈圆圆,邹本东,姜涛,贺青

〖机 构〗北京市环境保护监测中心

〖摘 要〗建立了烟尘、烟气监测全程序质量监督体系,确定了监督检查工作需要控制的环节,并细化了各环节需要重点关注的内容。以层次分析法等关键技术为基础,通过赋予监测全过程各环节不同的指标权重,建立了统一化、标准化的综合评价模式。研究将评价体系分为2个层次,一级指标3个,二级指标19个,并确定了每个指标的测评内容及计算方法。将该体系应用于6家监测机构的质量监督工作,证明其实用性和适用性良好。

〖关键词〗烟尘监测;烟气监测;全程序质量监督;评价方法

Abstract〗A whole procedure quality supervisory system for dust and smoke and flue gas monitoring was established. Controlling procedures in quality supervisory system were defined and the key process was discussed in detail. By giving different evaluation weights to each process of the whole monitoring procedure, a unified and standardized evaluation model was established based on weight analysis technology and other related key technologies. In this paper the evaluation system was defined as two levels. The first level included 3 indices and the second included 19 indices. It was also defined of the evaluation content and the calculation method for each evaluation index. The system was applied in the whole procedure quality supervision by 6 monitoring departments, the results proved that it had good practicality and applicability.

Key words〗Dust and smoke monitoring; Flue gas monitoring; Whole procedure quality supervision; Evaluation method

 

 

〖篇 名〗博斯腾湖矿化度遥感反演及空间分布特征研究

〖作 者〗姜红1,玉素甫江·如素力1,2*,阿迪来·乌甫1,热伊莱·卡得尔1,艾则孜提约麦尔·麦麦提1

〖机 构〗1.新疆师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,2.新疆师范大学新疆干旱区湖泊环境与资源重点实验室

〖摘 要〗以我国最大的内陆淡水湖——博斯腾湖为研究对象,利用Terra/MODIS L1B空间分辨率为250 m和500 m的遥感反射率数据及湖水矿化度实测数据建立线性回归模型,分析湖表面矿化度的空间分布特征。结果表明:空间分辨率为500 m的1~7个波段组合建立的多元线性回归模型相关性最高(R2=0.70),模型验证结果显示,实测值和反演值的相关系数(R2)为0.82,均方根误差(RMSE)为0.12。利用最优模型对博斯腾湖湖面矿化度进行反演,其分布存在明显的空间梯度,西北、东北和东南湖区矿化度较高,而西南湖区和湖区南部矿化度较低。

〖关键词〗矿化度;遥感反演;空间分布特征;MODIS;博斯腾湖

Abstract〗In this paper, taking Bosten Lake——the largest inland freshwater lake as research object, the linear regression models were established using 250 m and 500 m remote sensing data of Terra/MODIS L1B for observing the lake water salinity. The spatial distribution characteristics of salinity in the lake surface were analyzed. The results indicated that the multi linear regression model established by a combination of 1 to 7 band with a spatial resolution of 500 m,  had the highest correlation(R2=0.70). The correlation coefficient between measured values and retrieval valves (R2) was 0.82, and the Root Mean Square Error(RMSE) was 0.12. The spatial distribution of salinity in Bosten Lake had obvious gradient. The water salinity was higher in the northwest, northeast and southeast parts, and lower in southwest and southern parts in the lake. 

Key words〗Salinity; Remote sensing retrieval; Spatial distribution characteristics; MODIS; Bosten Lake

〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41161007, 41461006);自治区青年科技创新人才培养工程基金资助项目(QN2015YX009);新疆师范大学地理学博士点支撑学科开放课题基金资助项目(XJNU-DL-201605)

 

〖篇 名〗江苏省PM2.5质量浓度的时空变化格局模拟

〖作 者〗李啸天,吴绍华*,徐于月,贲培琪,赵涵

〖机 构〗南京大学地理与海洋科学学院

〖摘 要〗基于遥感数据,利用多元线性回归模型研究地面监测的PM2.5质量浓度数据与AOD、气象数据及地面植被覆盖等数据的关系,空间精细化反演江苏省PM2.5质量浓度分布。结果表明,AOD、气象数据及地面植被覆盖数据能较好地反演出PM2.5质量浓度时空分布特征;江苏全省PM2.5质量浓度呈现出冬高秋低、春夏居中的季节变化规律;春、冬季PM2.5质量浓度的高值区集中在苏锡常、宁镇扬及泰州、南通等东南沿海的城市,而在靠近西北内陆的盐城、连云港、徐州、淮安、宿迁PM2.5质量浓度较低,夏、秋季呈现出相反的态势。

〖关键词〗PM2.5;时空格局;MODIS;气溶胶光学厚度;江苏

Abstract〗Based on the remote sensing data, using multiple linear regression model of the ground observation data of PM2.5 concentration and AOD, meteorological data and ground vegetation cover, the PM2.5 concentration distribution in Jiangsu has been inverted. The results showed that AOD, meteorological data and ground vegetation cover could reflect the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 mass concentration. The mass concentration of PM2.5 in Jiangsu showed obvious temporal and spatial distribution characteristics. In terms of time, the concentration of PM2.5 were higher in winter and lower in spring. In terms of space, high concentration of PM2.5 was concentrated in Suxichang, Ningzhenyang and Taizhou, Nantong, and other southeast coastal cities in spring and winter. PM2.5 concentration showed opposite trend in summer and autumn near the northwest inland of Yancheng, Lianyungang, Xuzhou, Huaian, Suqian.

Key words〗 PM2.5; Spatial and temporal pattern; MODIS; Aerosol optical depth; Jiangsu

〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41671085)

 

〖篇 名〗武汉市热岛强度分区与规划应对策略

〖作 者〗尹杰1,2,詹庆明2,梁婷2,3

〖机 构〗1.三峡大学土木与建筑学院 ;2.武汉大学城市设计学院 ;3.瑞典皇家理工学院

〖摘 要〗城市热岛强度分区是城市通风环境改善的前期准备工作。通过空间信息技术方法,提取不同土地类型,并结合建成区热岛强度指数划分武汉市热岛及冷空气生成区。结果表明:用地类型与地表温度存在明显的相关性,大部分水域处于低温区及次低温区,高温区不存在林草地和耕地,城市建设用地主要分布在高温区内;热岛区域大部分分布在武汉市主城区范围内,冷空气生成区位于城市热岛的周边,主城区范围内的大型湖泊、河流和公园绿地对热岛进行分隔。由此提出,对武汉市各个气候功能片区采取分类规划改善策略。

〖关键词〗城市热岛;应对策略;冷空气生成区;遥感影像;地理信息系统;武汉

Abstract〗Thermal environment study is a preliminary research for urban ventilation environment study. The paper extracts the different land use which based on the spatial information technology, and combines the index to divide the urban heat islands and cold air areas of Wuhan. It indicates that there is a strong relationship between land use and land surface temperature. Most of the waters are in low temperature areas. The grass land and cultivated land are not existed in high temperature areas, but the urban construction land is mainly distributed in high temperature areas. As for the Wuhan City, most of the heat islands exist in the main urban areas, and the cold air generated area is located in the surrounding of urban heat islands. The heat island in the main areas are separated by large lakes, rivers and the park green space. Lastly, this paper presents the planning strategy of each climate zone in Wuhan.

Key words〗 Urban heat island; Strategic planning; Cold air area; Remote sensing image; GIS; Wuhan

〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(51378399)

 

〖篇 名〗长江南京段新兴污染物污染特征及风险评估

〖作 者〗孙雨,丁剑楠,卢婕,赵宇辰,宫奕波,卓立波,陆光华*

〖机 构〗河海大学环境学院

〖摘 要〗在长江南京段上游至下游依次布设6个采样点采集水样,使用固相萃取和LC-MS/MS相结合的方法对5种选定药物的质量浓度进行测定,并采用风险熵模型评估其生态风险。结果表明,6个采样点均检测到药物存在。其中,四环素、红霉素、罗红霉素和氯霉素的检出率为100%,最高检出值为10.29 ng/L(氯霉素)。与国内外其他地表水相比,长江南京段水中的药物质量浓度较低。生态风险评估结果表明,长江南京段水中5种药物的风险熵值均低于1,对水生生物不存在高风险。

〖关键词〗新兴污染物;污染特征;生态风险评估;长江南京段

Abstract〗In the Yangtze River Nanjing section, water was collected at six sampling points. Five selected pharmaceutical compounds were determined by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS), and their ecological risks were assessed using risk quotient model. The results showed that the pharmaceutical compounds were detected in all the six sampling sites. The detection rates of tetracycline, erythromycin, roxithromycine and chloramphenicol were 100%, and the highest concentration was 10.29 ng/L for chloramphenicol. Compared to domestic and overseas surface water, the mass concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds are relatively low in this study. The results of ecological risk assessment showed that the risk entropy of the five drugs in the Yangtze River Nanjing section were all less than 1, indicating that the detected drugs are not at high risk for aquatic organisms.

Key words〗Emerging pollutants; Pollution characteristics; Ecological risk assessment; Nanjing section of Yangtze River

〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(51279061);江苏高校品牌专业建设工程基金资助项目

 

〖篇 名〗黔江区饮用水源地水质模糊综合评价研究

〖作 者〗姚靖1,李清芳1,张永江1,2*,邓茂1,王祥炳1

〖机 构〗1.重庆市黔江区环境监测中心站 ;2.西南大学资源环境学院

〖摘 要〗采用模糊综合评价模型的最大隶属及加权平均原则对黔江城区饮用水水源地(小南海水库、城北水库和洞塘水库)水质进行评价,并将评价结果与常规单因素分析法、富营养化评价的结果作对比分析。研究表明,采用最大隶属原则评价显示3个水源地的水质基本保持在Ⅱ类以上,采用隶属度加权平均原则评价水质结果为1.47级,而单因子评价结果显示3个水源地水质结果均为Ⅲ类以上。另外,模糊综合评价结果与富营养化评价结果相一致,说明模糊综合评价模型评价结果更直观、连续。

〖关键词〗饮用水源地水质;模糊综合评价;最大隶属;加权平均;黔江区

Abstract〗Compared with the singlefactor evaluation and eutrophication evaluation, the maximum membership principle and the weighted average principle of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation were conducted to evaluate the water qualities of three potable water reservoirs (Xiaonanhai Reservoir, Chengbei Reservior, Dongtang Reservior) in Qianjiang District. The results showed that all of the three potable water reservoirs reach class Ⅱ standard for drinking water quality by maximum membership principle evaluation and a 1.47 grade of water quality by weighted average principle evaluation, while the class Ⅲ standard were evaluated by singlefactor evaluation. And, a consistent assessment from the eutrophication evaluation and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation also indicated the intuition and continuity of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

Key words〗Water quality of potable water reservoirs; Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; Maximum membership; Weighted average; Qianjiang District

〖基金〗重庆市社会事业与民主保障科技创新专项基金资助项目(cstc2015shmszx0042);重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究基金资助项目(cstc2015jcyjA0002);黔江区科委科技计划基金资助项目(黔科计2015046)

 

〖篇 名〗高尔夫球场农药使用情况调查及特征分析

〖作 者〗吴阿娜, 怀红燕, 汤琳

〖机 构〗上海市环境监测中心

〖摘 要〗通过对上海市高尔夫球场农药使用情况的详细调查,结果显示:当前高尔夫球场使用的农药主要包括3大类43种,包含杀菌剂20种、杀虫剂14种和除草剂9种,种类组成及施用量均以杀菌剂为主;施用农药以微毒、低毒农药为主(占69.8%),高毒农药主要为杀虫剂;不同球场农药使用种类、强度和频次等存在较大差异,主要与球场规模、草坪种类及管理水平等有关;当前高尔夫球场农药使用中仍存在农药施用强度较高,农药施用种类较多,品种结构仍有待优化等问题。

〖关键词〗农药使用;高尔夫球场;上海

Abstract〗The type and quantities of pesticide used in golf course of Shanghai were investigated in this paper. 43 kinds of pesticides including 20 fungicides, 14 insecticides and 9 herbicides have been used in golf course. 69.8% of which are slightly toxic and low toxicity pesticide. The frequency and variety of pesticide vary in different golf courses due to the size of golf course, lawn type and management level. The main problems of pesticide application and relevant measurement have been proposed.

Key words〗Pesticide application; Golf course; Shanghai

〖基金〗上海市环保局科研基金资助项目(沪环科2014-3)

 

〖篇 名〗弗罗里硅土净化和凝胶色谱净化在土壤苯并(a)芘测定中的应用

〖作 者〗马可婧,张国祯,李小燕

〖机 构〗甘肃省环境监测中心站

〖摘 要〗采用ASE萃取-弗罗里硅土净化-HPLC法和ASE萃取-GPC净化-HPLC法测定土壤中苯并(a)芘,并将2种方法的测定结果作比对。试验表明,方法在0.02 mg/L~0.500 mg/L之间线性良好,当取样量为10 g时,弗罗里硅土净化土壤样品方法检出限为8.93×10-5  mg/kg,平均加标回收率为72.7%~73.8%,3次测定结果的RSD为4.0%~4.5%;凝胶色谱净化土壤样品方法检出限为1.98×10-5  mg/kg,平均加标回收率为88.8%~90.2%,3次测定结果的RSD为 2.1%~2.8%。

〖关键词〗苯并(a)芘;弗罗里硅土;凝胶渗透色谱;高效液相色谱法;土壤

Abstract〗Two methods have been established and compared for determining Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in soil by ASE(accelerated solvent extraction)Florisil purificationHPLC detection and ASEGPC(gel purification chromatography) purificationHPLC detection. Good linearity was observed when BaP concentrations were between 0.02 mg/L and 0.500 mg/L. When sampling amount was 10 g, the detection limit of florisil purification was 8.93×10-5 mg/kg, the average spiked recoveries were between 72.7% and 73.8%, the relative standard deviations were 4.0%~4.5%. The detection limit of GPC purification was 1.98×10-5 mg/kg,the average spiked recoveries were between 88.8% and 90.2%, the relative standard deviations were 2.1%~2.8%.

Key words〗Benzo (a) pyrene; Florisil; Gel purification chromatography; HPLC; Soils

〖基金〗国家科技支撑计划基金资助项目(2013BAK01B01)

 

〖篇 名〗ICP-MS法测定南京市环境空气PM2.5中多种元素

〖作 者〗杜青,张予燕

〖机 构〗南京市环境监测中心站

〖摘 要〗采用聚四氟乙烯膜采样,硝酸-过氧化氢-氢氟酸微波消解样品,ICP-MS法测定南京某国控点环境空气PM2.5中30种元素,结果目标元素在0 μg/L~500 μg/L之间线性良好,方法检出限为0.02 ng/m3~15 ng/m3,实际样品6次测定结果的RSD为0.5%~19.6%,加标回收率为78.5%~126%;所测元素的年日均值为0.03 ng/m3~1 462 ng/m3,占PM2.5总量的7.3%。主要来自化石燃烧、机动车排放和钢铁冶炼的Cd、Zn、Se、Pb、Sb、Cu、As富集程度较高,Al、Ba、Be、Fe主要来自土壤岩石等自然源,富集度低。元素测定值季节分布呈秋冬高、春夏低的态势,与PM2.5的季节变化趋势一致。

〖关键词〗元素测定;PM2.5;分布特征;富集因子;环境空气

Abstract〗In this paper, 30 elements in ambient PM2.5 in  Nanjing were collected by Teflon filter, digested by microwave and nitric acidhydrogen peroxidehydrofluoric acid, determined by ICPMS. Some measurement parameters were obtained from method study. The elements had good linearity range in 0 μg/L~500 μg/L. Of all the elements, the MDL were 0.02 ng/m3~15 ng/m3, the RSD were 0.5%~19.6%(n=6) and the recoveries ranged in 78.5%~126%. Results from practical sample showed that the annual mean concentration of the detected elements were in 0.03 ng/m3~1 462 ng/m3, accounting for 7.3% of PM2.5 total mass. As, exceeding the national standard, could be a threat to public health. Cd, Zn, Se, Pb, Cu and As from fossilfuel, vehicle exhausting and steelmaking had large enrichment factor. Al, Ba, Be and Fe came from natural sources such as soil and rock for their low enrichment. The concentration of most elements were higher in autumn and winter than that of in spring and summer, in accordance with the seasonal variation of PM2.5.

Key words〗 Elements analysis; PM2.5 ; Mass concentration distribution; Enrichment factor; Ambient air

〖基金〗江苏省环保厅“江苏省蓝天工程重大专项研究”课题基金资助项目(苏财建[2011]129号)

 

〖篇 名〗气相色谱-串联质谱法测定水中己烯雌酚残留

〖作 者〗钱宗耀,张维维,刘河疆*

〖机 构〗新疆农业科学院农业质量标准与检测技术研究所

〖摘 要〗采用乙酸乙酯提取水样中己烯雌酚残留,经BSTFA/TMCS衍生化后,用GC-MS/MS测定,通过优化试验条件,使该方法在0.05 mg/L~1.00 mg/L范围内线性良好,方法检出限为146 ng/L。实际水样2个质量浓度水平的加标回收率为90.8%和91.9%,5次测定结果的RSD分别为2.2%和2.1%。

〖关键词〗己烯雌酚;气相色谱-串联质谱法;水质

Abstract〗A method has been established for determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in water by gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GCMS/MS). The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate, subsequently derived with BSTFA/TMCS reagent. The optimized method showed good linearity with the concentration ranged in 0.05 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, the detection limit(LOD) was 146 ng/L. The spiked recoveries of 2 concentration level were 90.8% and 91.9%,respectively, and the RSD of 5 reduplicative determination were 2.2% and 2.1%,respectively.

Key words〗 Diethylstilbestrol; Gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry; Water quality

〖基金〗新疆维吾尔自治区公益性科研院所基本科研业务基金资助项目(KY2015082)

 

〖篇 名〗固相萃取-GC/MS法测定地表水中3-甲基吲哚

〖作 者〗薛祥晔,鲜啟鸣,冯建昉

〖机 构〗南京大学环境学院

〖摘 要〗采用微球硅胶键合C18固相萃取柱萃取水样中的3-甲基吲哚,并用气质联用法测定,方法在0 mg/L~10.0 mg/L 范围内线性良好,方法检出限为0.2 μg/L。空白水样3个质量浓度水平的加标回收率为89%~94%,7次测定结果的RSD为2.3%~6.9%。用该方法测定7个实际地表水样品,其中4个地表水样品检出3-甲基吲哚,地表水样的加标回收率为81.5%~97.0%。

〖关键词〗3-甲基吲哚;微球硅胶填料;固相萃取;气相色谱/质谱法;地表水

Abstract〗A method for determination of 3methylindole in surface water was established by using SPE cartridge packed with C18 micro ball silica gel and GC/MS. The linear range were 0 mg/L~10.0 mg/L. The method detection limit was 0.2 μg/L,  spiked recoveries of blank water were from 89% to 94%, the relative standard deviation of 7 samples were from 2.3% to 6.9% in precision and accuracy tests. The method was used to detect 7 environmental samples collected on surface waters, 3methylindole in different levels was found in 4 surface water samples and spiked recoveries were 81.5%~97.0%.

Key words〗 3methylindole; Micro ball silica gel packing; SPE; Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Surface water

〖基金〗江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK20131271);太湖水环境综合治理科研课题基金资助项目(TH2016301)

 

〖篇 名〗氢氧自由基与长链烷烃反应产物的气相色谱质谱检测初探

〖作 者〗曹冠楠1,王静2

〖机 构〗1.中国人民解放军工程与环境质量监督局;2.中国科学院化学研究所,北京分子科学国家实验室

〖摘 要〗利用烟雾箱系统,以H2O2的紫外光解作为OH自由基来源,模拟OH与正十五烷和2,6,10-三甲基十二烷的反应,采用长链烷烃与OH自由基反应产物的Tenax管吸附采样-自动热解析-气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法分析,获得长链烷烃与OH反应的氧化产物信息,并对长链烷烃与OH的反应机制作初步探讨

〖关键词〗长链烷烃;OH自由基;气相色谱质谱法

Abstract〗It is reported that the reaction products of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with atmospheric oxidant(O3, OH, NO3, Cl, etc.) are important sources of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which has great influence on the environmental quality. In this study, the OH radical was obtained using the photolysis of H2O2 under 224 nm UV light, and the reactions of OH with pentadecane, 2,6,10trimethyl dodecane were conducted in a 5 m3 smoke chamber. In this paper, a method was established to analyze the products by Tenax tube adsorption samplingautomatic thermal desorptiongas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS).The reaction mechanism of long chain alkanes with OH radical was discussed on the basis of the product information. The results are believed to be helpful to understand the conversion process of the exhaust of diesel vehicles to SOA in the atmosphere.

Key words〗The longchain alkane; OH radical; Chromatographymass spectrometry analysis method

 

 

〖篇 名〗生物毒性试验在工业退役场地调查中的应用

〖作 者〗陈奕1,2,刘惠1,2,宋立杰1,2,诸毅1,2

〖机 构〗1.上海环境卫生工程设计院有限公司;2. 上海污染场地修复工程技术研究中心

〖摘 要〗通过试验考察了上海某退役镀锌厂环境样品对青海弧菌、秀丽杆隐形线虫、斑马鱼、白菜种子和热带爪蟾的毒性效应。结果表明,生产区、废水处理区、原料仓储区的环境样品对各受试生物诱发很强的致死效应或生长发育抑制作用,同时其还表现出对热带爪蟾胚胎的致畸效应,潜在生态风险较大,场地后续搬迁及再利用过程中需重点关注这些区域。

〖关键词〗生物毒性;生态风险;污染场地调查;退役镀锌厂

Abstract〗In the present study, biological toxicity to Vibrio Qinghai, Caenorhabditis elegans, Brachydanio rerio, Chinese cabbage and Xenopus tropicalis were detected in environmental samples from a galvanizing mill in Shanghai. Results indicated that environmental samples from the production area,sewage treatment area and rawmaterial warehouse were toxic, which induced lethal effect or growth inhibition on the experimental organisms, as well as teratogenic effect on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Due to potential ecological risk of the galvanizing mill, attention should be paid to the heavily polluted area during redevelopment of the mill.

Key words〗Biotoxicity test; Ecological risk; Contaminated site investigation; Galvanizing mill

〖基金〗上海市科委基金资助项目(No.14DZ2251800);上海市国资委基金资助项目(NO.2015016)

 

〖篇 名〗基于非洗井情况下地下水样品代表性探讨

〖作 者〗喻颖1,2,陆燕勤1,杨洋2,刘保森2,3,马志飞2,4,姜永海2,李鸣晓2*

〖机 构〗1.桂林理工大学环境科学与工程学院 ;2.中国环境科学研究院;3.同济大学;4.北京师范大学

〖摘 要〗将非洗井法采样筛管部位取样的可行性和洗井前后样品代表性作对比,当监测井中地下水流量为0.1 L/min~0.5 L/min时,用微扰动采样器在非洗井情况下采样。洗井前后常规无机离子浓度和5种物理指标的研究对比结果显示,在非洗井情况下用微扰动地下水采样器在筛管部位取样的样品与洗井之后的样品十分接近。6口监测井水中无机离子含量单方向方差分析结果显示,p值>0.05(显著性),验证概率F<F crit,表明在95%的置信度上可总结为无机化学参数在洗井前后无显著性差异。

〖关键词〗无机离子;物理指标;监测井;微扰动采样;地下水

Abstract〗In this paper, the feasibility of nonwellflushing method for sampling was analyzed by comparing the sample representativeness before and after wellflushing. Sampling was carried out when the flow rate of groundwater in monitoring wells was 0.1 L/min~0.5 L/min using microperturbation sampler without wellflushing. The comparative study on the concentration of conventional inorganic ion and 5 physical indicators before and after wellflushing showed that the samples taken by these two methods were very closed. In six monitoring wells, p value was greater than 0.05 (significant) and the verification probability F was less than Fcrit (F<F crit), which indicated that at 95% confidence level, inorganic chemical parameters had no significant difference before and after wellflushing.

Key words〗Inorganic ion; Physical index; Monitoring well; Microperturbation sampling; Groundwater

〖基金〗国家重大科学仪器开发专项基金资助项目(2013YQ06072101);国家科技重大专项基金资助项目(2014XZ07203010-2)

 

〖篇 名〗石家庄大气中优先控制挥发性有机物筛选

〖作 者〗高博,王淑娟,范莉茹,马磊,王玥,谷嵩*

〖机 构〗河北省环境监测中心站

〖摘 要〗综合考虑国内外优先控制污染物筛选的方法,结合实际调查情况,制定了石家庄市大气中优先控制挥发性有机物筛选的原则。对检出率高、贡献率高,可能对人体健康存在潜在危害性的挥发性有机物作筛选,提出了包含20种化合物的优先控制名单,其中卤代烃7种,芳香烃5种,酯类3种,酮类2种,烯烃、醛类和硫化物各1种。从化合物的用途和应用领域分析,医药化工行业可能是石家庄市区大气中挥发性有机物的主要排放源。

〖关键词〗挥发性有机物;优先控制;大气;石家庄

Abstract〗In consideration of the screening method for priority control organic pollutants and monitoring data of Shijiazhuangs air quality, a principle for screening volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed. 20 compounds, including 7 halohydrocarbons, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, 3 esters, 2 ketones, 1 alkene, 1 aldehyde and 1 sulfide, were screened out from the VOCs with high detection and contribution rates, and high risks to health. The pharmaceutical industries who use these VOCs might be the major sources.

Key words〗 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs); Priority control; Ambient air; Shijiazhuang

〖基金〗2015年度河北省环境保护公益性行业科研专项基金资助项目(15gy01)