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2017年第3期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2017-06-16 11:04  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

 2017年第3期目次及主要文章中英文摘要


移动γ射线探伤辐射安全风险与对策...................................韦正,宋永忠,黄昕,等(1)
火电厂自行监测关键问题研究.....................................................张静,王华(5)
物元分析法的改进及在辽河干流水质监测断面优化中的应用.................甘宇,殷实,王辉,等(8)
采煤塌陷积水区时空动态变化监测研究...............................张红梅,王大卫,高杨,等(13)
春季一次典型沙尘天气对南京市空气质量影响研究.....................杨雪,张祥志,汤莉莉,等(18)
广州市PM2.5质量浓度垂直分布在线监测研究........................邝俊侠,裴成磊,黄祖照,等(23)
兰州西固区土壤中有机氯农药污染特征及风险评价...................魏雪芬,蒋煜峰,王蓓蕾,等(27)
生态保护区域饮用水源地水质金属健康风险评价.......................张永江,邓茂,黄晓容,等(32)
上海市浦东新区PM2.5中多环芳烃的时空分布与风险评估..............徐建平,孙睿华,崔虎雄,等(37)
燃煤电厂石膏雨污染排放实测.........................................吴晓蔚,刘启贞,沈志刚(41)
应用小鼠淋巴细胞彗星试验检测地下水遗传毒性.....................刘瑞祥,边高鹏,兰婷婷,等(45)
便携式XRF土壤重金属检测仪在环境应急监测中的应用探讨..............段雪梅,张燕波,文军,等(49)
便携式GC-MS法快速测定固定污染源废气中的VOCs........................宋祖华,谢馨,柏松,等(53)
生活垃圾焚烧炉烟气中二噁英排放水平及控制措施...................钱莲英,潘淑萍,徐哲明,等(57)
石化装置停工放空的VOCs排放估算参数要求探讨.......................贾瑜玲,崔积山,牛皓,等(61)
拉林河流域地下水污染特征分析...................................陈瑞晖,陈海洋,滕彦国,等(64)
不同滤筒中无机元素含量探讨.......................................毕越,成永霞,赵小学,等(69)
 
主要文章中英文摘要

〖篇 名〗移动γ射线探伤辐射安全风险与对策
〖作 者〗韦正1,宋永忠2,黄昕1,刁端阳1,朱晓翔1
〖机 构〗1.江苏省核与辐射安全监督管理局 2.南京市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗分析了移动γ射线探伤辐射安全事故的风险,包括固有风险、贮存风险、运输风险、作业风险、退役或换源风险、管理风险、违规风险、环境风险和社会风险等,比较了各类风险的高低,提出了降低风险的措施。结合目前有关移动γ射线探伤的辐射安全防护与管理,提出了核安全文化宣贯、人员培训和管理、现场监督检查、在线监控、信用和联合惩戒、公众沟通等6个方面的建议。
〖关键词〗移动γ射线探伤;辐射安全;风险分析
Abstract〗In this article, the accident risks of mobile γray detection radiation includes inherent risk, storage risk, transport risk, operation risk, replacement risk, management risk, violation risk, environmental risk and social risk were analyzed and compared. Management and protection measures were put forward for reducing the risks of mobile γray detection radiation. Six suggestions were proposed on nuclear security propaganda, personnel training and management, field supervision and inspection, online monitoring, credit and joint punishment, public communication.
Key words〗Mobile gamma radiography; Radiation safety; Risk analysis
〖基金〗环境保护部“移动γ射线探伤装置辐射安全改进研究”基金资助项目(1506-4);江苏省环境保护厅科研课题“高风险源事故应急对策研究”基金资助项目(2015042)

〖篇 名〗火电厂自行监测关键问题研究
〖作 者〗张静1,王华2
〖机 构〗1.江苏省太湖水质监测中心站 2.江苏省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗分析了我国火电厂自行监测的现状及存在的问题,包括监测指标不全、监测频次不足、监测点位代表性不够、信息公开不规范等。从监测方案和信息记录2个方面,针对废气、废水、厂界噪声、周边环境质量等的监测点位、监测指标和监测频次,以及监测信息、生产和污染治理设施运行状况、工业固体废物的记录要求,提出了相应的技术建议。
〖关键词〗火电厂;自行监测;监测方案;信息记录
Abstract〗In this paper, the current situation and problems including incomplete monitoring indexes, inadequate monitoring frequency, unrepresentative monitoring sites and irregular information disclosure of selfmonitoring in power plant were concluded. Technical suggestions were proposed from two aspects: monitoring scheme and information record, involving monitoring sites of exhaust emission, waste water, noise at enterprise boundary and surrounding environmental quality, monitoring indexes and frequency, monitoring information, running state of production and pollution control.
Key words〗Power plant; Selfmonitoring; Monitoring scheme; Record information
〖基金〗中国环境监测总站“编制排污单位自行监测指南(火力发电行业)”基金资助项目(JCZN-2015-01)

〖篇 名〗物元分析法的改进及在辽河干流水质监测断面优化中的应用
〖作 者〗甘宇,殷实,王辉*,王英刚,孙丽娜,王晓旭,吴昊
〖机 构〗沈阳大学区域污染环境生态修复教育部重点实验室
〖摘 要〗在物元分析的基础上,引入各监测断面到其所在类别的重心距离,构建了一种定量的监测断面优化方法。以2009年1月—2010年12月辽河干流水环境监测数据为基础,对辽河干流水质监测断面进行优化,并采用〖WTBX〗T检验、F〖WTBZ〗检验和相邻断面监测数据相关性对优化结果验证。结果表明,使用改进的物元分析法优化后,辽河干流监测断面减少为6个,监测效率提高了25%。在优化后的监测断面与在原监测断面监测获得的数据均值无显著差异、方差齐,而且经过优化后的断面重复布设情况得到显著改善,水质监测断面合理性显著增强。
〖关键词〗物元分析;水质监测断面;重心距离;辽河干流
Abstract〗Base on matter element analysis and centroid distance method, and the data of water quality from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010, a quantification approach for optimizing water quality monitoring section in the mainstream of Liaohe River was established in this paper. Ttest, Ftest and the correlation between adjacent sections were performed in both unoptimized monitoring networks and optimized monitoring networks to examine the accuracy and rationality of the optimization results. The results showed that the number of monitoring sections were reduced from 8 to 6, and the efficiency of the monitoring network was increased by 25%. Compared with the original monitoring sections, the data from optimized monitoring sections had no significant difference, and the monitoring sections by repeated setting were eliminated. 
Key words〗 Matter element analysis; Water quality monitoring section; Centroid distance; The mainstream of Liaohe River
〖基金〗国家科技重大专项基金资助项目(2012ZX07202-004);沈阳市科技计划基金资助项目(F14-133-9-00);沈阳市科学事业竞争性选择项目“城市生态环境风险管理及其修复技术研究”基金资助项目;沈阳大学特色专业建设基金资助项目

〖篇 名〗采煤塌陷积水区时空动态变化监测研究
〖作 者〗张红梅1,王大卫1,高杨2,公维朕1
〖机 构〗1.安徽理工大学地球与环境学院 2.宿州学院环境与测绘工程学院
〖摘 要〗基于Landsat系列4个时相数据,利用谱间关系法提取NDVI、NDWI和缨帽变换指数,并采用决策树和分类后比较法研究淮南矿区采煤塌陷积水区时空变化。结果表明:1987—2015年淮南矿区塌陷积水区域面积为189.51 km2,年均增加6.77 km2。其中,2000—2005年塌陷积水区域面积变化较大,年均增加15.0 km2,其水域数量变化动态度和空间变化动态度分别高达13.66%和53.61%。凤台矿区年均增加积水面积最大,为2.60 km2,其次为新集、潘集和孔李沉陷区,9大沉陷区及其他矿区增幅较小。在“边塌陷边治理”下,除潘集和凤台矿区水域面积增加,丁集朱集矿基本持平外,其他矿区水域面积均有所减少。
〖关键词〗采煤塌陷;积水区;时空变化;遥感;淮南矿区
Abstract〗Using four years of Landsat series remote sensing image data of  water body in Huainan mining area, the dynamic change of subsidence seeper areas were studied. Based on the spectral characteristics of water body, using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and tasseled cap transformation indexes, constructing decision tree classification rule and GIS comparison method, the dynamic change of the water body was obtained. The results showed that during 1987—2015, the seeper subsidence area was 189.51 km2, with an average annual increase of 6.77 km2. Especially in 2000—2005, the average annual increase was 15.0 km2. The dynamic change degree of the water body and the spatial dynamic change degree were up to 13.66% and 53.61%, respectively. The average annual increase of the seeper subsidence area was 2.60 km2 in Fengtai mining area, followed by Xinji, Panji and Kongli subsidence area. The water body was increased in Panji and Fengtai mining areas, remained stable in Dingji and Zhuji mining areas, and reduced in other mining areas by the “subsidence management strategy”.
Key words〗Coal mining subsidence;Seeper area;Dynamic change;Remote sensing;Huainan mining area
〖基金〗安徽高校自然科学研究重点基金资助项目(KJ2016A826);安徽理工大学矿山地质灾害防治安徽省重点实验室基金资助项目(KJ2016A826);大学生创新创业训练计划基金资助项目(201510361124)

〖篇 名〗春季一次典型沙尘天气对南京市空气质量影响研究
〖作 者〗杨雪1,张祥志1,汤莉莉1,张璘1,秦玮1,陆维青1,杜嵩山1,盛世杰2
〖机 构〗1.江苏省环境监测中心  2.无锡中科光电技术有限公司
〖摘 要〗2016年5月6日—8日南京市经历了一次由沙尘影响的重污染过程,在此期间对南京城区的PM10、PM2.5和PM2.5化学组分、消光系数、退偏振比等参数进行连续观测,结合HYSPLIT后向轨迹模拟对此次过程作相关分析。结果表明:此次沙尘为典型的北方传输影响,传输方向为西北至东南,受其影响南京市空气质量一度达到重度污染;PM2.5中Ca2+平均质量浓度达1.52 μg/m3,高出沙尘过境后2.45倍;近地面至高空1.2 km范围内消光系数值约0.4 km-1,退偏振比值达0.4左右,沙尘造成近地面PM10和PM2.5质量浓度均有升高。
〖关键词〗沙尘;PM10;PM2.5;水溶性离子;消光系数;退偏振比;南京
Abstract〗From 6th to 8th of May 2016, Nanjing suffered a severe air pollution impacted by a dust storm. According to continuous monitoring of the chemical components in PM2.5, PM2.5 and PM10, the extinction coefficient and polarization ratio, and by HYSPLIT backward trajectory simulation analysis, it was concluded that this air pollution process was a typical dust transportation from the northwest to the southeast. The average concentration of Ca2+ in PM2.5 was 1.52 μg/m3, which was 2.45 times higher than that after the storm. The extinction coefficient was about 0.4 km-1 from near the ground to 1.2 km altitude, the depolarization ratio reached to 0.4. The concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 near the ground both went up by the dust storm.
Key words〗Dust; PM10; PM2.5; Water soluble ions; Extinction coefficient; Depolarization ratio; Nanjing
〖基金〗国家科技支撑计划基金资助项目(2014BAC22B04);国家自然科学重大研究计划基金资助项目(D0512/91544231)

〖篇 名〗广州市PM2.5质量浓度垂直分布在线监测研究
〖作 者〗邝俊侠,裴成磊,黄祖照,张金谱,邱晓暖
〖机 构〗广州市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗广州塔空气质量自动监测站在地面至高空500 m高度内布设了4个站点。在自动站内利用PM2.5质量浓度点式在线监测和激光雷达消光系数遥感监测技术,实现对PM2.5质量浓度垂直分布的在线监测,监测方法具有很高的时间分辨率和空间分辨率。利用该方法开展阶段性监测表明:PM2.5质量浓度与355 nm消光系数间具有很好的线性关系,R2达到0.853 7,利用线性关系式可反演PM2.5质量浓度。对200 m~550 m间反演结果分析表明:反演结果与在线监测数据具有很好的相关性,相关系数达到0.868以上;PM2.5质量浓度随着高度改变呈显著的对数相关关系,R2达到0.992 6。
〖关键词〗PM2.5;垂直分布;在线监测;激光雷达;消光系数;广州塔
Abstract〗Four automatic monitoring stations were laid on the Canton Tower from the ground to 500 m high. The vertical distribution of PM2.5 concentration was monitored by point mode online monitoring technology and remote sensing monitoring technology of Lidar extinction coefficient. This method had good time and spatial resolution. The primarily monitoring results showed that the relationship between PM2.5 concentration and the extinction coefficient at 355 nm was linear, R2 was 0.853 7, indicating it could be used to inverse PM2.5 concentration through the extinction coefficient. There was good correlation between the inversion results and the online monitoring data at the height from 200 m to 550 m, the correlation coefficient was over 0.868. PM2.5 concentration had good logarithmic correlation with the variation of altitude and R2 reached to 0.992 6. 
Key words〗PM2.5; Vertical distribution; Online monitoring; Lidar; Extinction coefficient; Canton Tower
〖基金〗广州市科技计划基金资助项目(201604020006);广州市环保局污染防治新技术新工艺开发“广州市典型污染季节大气细粒子浓度垂直变化规律及其演化特征”基金资助项目

〖篇 名〗兰州西固区土壤中有机氯农药污染特征及风险评价
〖作 者〗魏雪芬1,蒋煜峰1*,王蓓蕾1,孙航1,慕仲锋1,展惠英2
〖机 构〗1.兰州交通大学环境与市政工程学院  2.兰州文理学院化工学院
〖摘 要〗采集兰州西固区土壤样品,采用GC/μECD方法检测样品中有机氯农药(OCPs)污染残留,并分析调查区土壤中OCPs污染特征、来源及潜在生态风险。结果表明,8种OCPs异构体在兰州西固区土壤中的检出率均为100%,总质量比范围在18.34 μg/kg~125.34 μg/kg之间,平均值为54.84 μg/kg;土壤中BCHs和DDTs残留质量比分别为0.742 μg/kg~29.3 μg/kg和10.9 μg/kg~98.6 μg/kg。OCPs残留以p,p′-DDT和β-BCH为主。不同采样点土壤样品中OCPs的残留量从高到低依次为路边样 > 绿化带样 > 树根土样> 菜地样。对DDTs与BCHs异构体残留组分分析发现,调查区土壤中残留的BCHs主要源于历史应用,而DDTs源于近期污染。
〖关键词〗有机氯农药;污染特征;生态风险;土壤;兰州西固区
Abstract〗In this study, the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in soil samples collected in Xigu District of Lanzhou were analyzed by using GC/μECD method. The contamination levels, spatial distribution, isomeric composition, probable sources and potential ecological risks of OCPs in soil samples were systematically investigated. The results showed that 8 kinds of OCPs were detected in all soil samples, and the total concentrations of OCPs (∑OCPs) ranged from 18.34 μg/kg to 125.34 μg/kg while the average was 54.84 μg/kg. The concentration of BCHs and DDTs were in the range of 0.742 μg/kg to 29.3 μg/kg and 10.9 μg/kg to 98.6 μg/kg, respectively. β-BCH and p,p′-DDT were the dominating compounds. Among the different sampling areas, the concentration of OCPs arranged from high to low was from roadside, greenbelt, tree root and vegetable field. The BCHs residue was derived from previous use, and DDTs was from recent pollution, according to component analysis of DDTs and BCHs isomer residue. 
Key words〗 OCPs; Contamination characteristic; Ecological risk; Soils; Xigu District of Lanzhou
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目 (41363008, 41272147) ;兰州交通大学“百名青年优秀人才培养计划”基金资助项目

〖篇 名〗生态保护区域饮用水源地水质金属健康风险评价
〖作 者〗张永江,邓茂,黄晓容,姚靖,李莹莹,刘蓉
〖机 构〗重庆市黔江区环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗选择重庆市生态保护发展区域饮用水源地为研究对象,运用健康风险评价模型对其水质金属进行评价。结果表明:7个饮用水源地中27种金属元素均达到USEPA、WHO和《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB 5749—2006)限值要求。饮用水源地中致癌健康风险从高到低依次为Cr>As>Cd,均低于USEPA最大可接受风险。非致癌金属的健康风险从高到低依次为Sr>Pb>Mo>Fe>Cu>Se>Ag>Ni>Zn>Mn,非致癌风险水平为9.36×10-11 a-1~1.25×10-7 a-1,远低于USEPA、ICRP等权威机构限值。成人致癌和非致癌健康风险水平均为女>男,致癌总风险均大于非致癌总风险2个数量级以上,总健康风险均保持在10-5数量级水平。
〖关键词〗生态保护区域;饮用水源地;金属;健康风险评价
Abstract〗The health risks of 27 kinds of metal elements from 7 drinking water sources in Chongqing ecological protection area were assessed. The concentrations of all the elements were below the limits from USEPA, WHO and national standard of drinking water quality (GB 5749—2006). The carcinogenic risks arranged in the order of Cr>As>Cd, all were below USEPA maximum acceptable risks. The noncarcinogenic risks were in sequential order of Sr>Pb>Mo>Fe>Cu>Se>Ag>Ni>Zn>Mn, and ranged in 9.36×10-11 a-1~1.25×10-7 a-1, which were far below the limits from USEPA, ICRP and other authorities. Adult female had a high risk level of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic than adult male, the total carcinogenic risk was two orders of magnitude more than the total noncarcinogenic risk, the total health risk were at the level of 10-5.
Key words〗Ecological protection area; Drinking water sources; Metal; Health risk assessment
〖基金〗重庆市社会事业与民主保障科技创新专项基金资助项目(cstc2015shmszx0042);重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究基金资助项目(cstc2015jcyjA0002);黔江区科委科技计划基金资助项目(黔科计2015046)

〖篇 名〗上海市浦东新区PM2.5中多环芳烃的时空分布与风险评估
〖作 者〗徐建平1,孙睿华1*,崔虎雄2,杨琛3,金晶1,储燕萍1,夏琴1
〖机 构〗1.上海市浦东新区环境监测站 2.上海市环境监测中心 3.上海市浦东新区疾病预防控制中心
〖摘 要〗通过对浦东新区9个点位PM2.5中的多环芳烃为期1 a的采样分析,获得浦东新区PM2.5中PAHs的时空变化特征。监测表明,冬季PAHs的浓度为夏季的7.9倍,空间上南部偏高;虽然不同季节不同环数的PAHs浓度变化存在一定差异,但均为5~6环占比最大,其次为4环,2~3环占比最少。结合PAHs呼吸致癌风险评估,浦东新区PAHs致癌风险值分布与实际肺癌发病率分布在冬季具有相关性。
〖关键词〗多环芳烃;细颗粒物;时空分布;呼吸致癌风险评估;上海市
Abstract〗The spatial and temporal variation of PAHs in PM2.5 from 9 monitoring sites in Pudong area was observed through one year sampling and analyzing. The concentration of PAHs in winter was 7.9 times of that in summer. There was a high level of PAHs concentration in the south of that area. Though the concentrations of different rings PHAs were not the same in different seasons, 5~6 rings PHAs were the in the majority, 4 rings was subsequent and 2~3 rings were the least. According carcinogenic risk assessment, the risk value of PHAs in Pudong New area was correlated with the incidence of lung cancer in winter.
Key words〗PAHs; PM2.5; Spatial and temporal distribution; Risk assessment of respiratory cancer; Shanghai
〖基金〗上海市浦东新区环境保护与市容管理局环保科技基金资助项目(201301)

〖篇 名〗燃煤电厂石膏雨污染排放实测
〖作 者〗吴晓蔚1,刘启贞1,沈志刚2
〖机 构〗1.上海市环境监测中心  2.上海申欣环保实业有限公司
〖摘 要〗对上海市8台燃煤机组开展了石膏雨和相关污染物排放监测,考察部分燃煤电厂石膏雨排放对周边居民生活和电厂生产造成的影响。结果表明,采用GGH并加热到一定温度,同时对除雾器进行优化的机组烟尘和可凝结颗粒物浓度均较低,石膏雨沉降和液滴均未检出,无冷凝回流液;虽然装有湿式电除尘器和GGH的机组石膏雨沉降未检出,但液滴浓度较高;仅装有湿式电除尘器的2台机组中1台检出石膏雨沉降;对照机组石膏雨沉降和液滴浓度均较高。建议电厂提升排烟温度,同时采取措施消除烟气中石膏夹带,彻底消除石膏雨,在标准制定时应充分考虑目前燃煤电厂多种污染物排放情况及其对环境的影响,尤其是石膏雨和可凝结颗粒物,制定相应的监测方法和评价体系,将其纳入火电厂排放标准中。
〖关键词〗石膏雨;可凝结颗粒物;燃煤电厂
Abstract〗Emissions of gypsum rain and other related pollutants in 8 coalfired units were monitored in order to clarify gypsum rain pollution. Results showed that the unit with GGH which was heated to a certain temperature and taking demister optimization measures, the dust and condensable particulate matter(CPM) emissions were low. Gypsum rain precipitation, liquid drop and condensate reflux liquid were undetected. Though gypsum rain precipitation was undetected in unit with wet electrostatic precipitator and GGH, liquid drop concentration were high. Gypsum rain precipitation was detected in one of two units with wet electrostatic precipitator. High concentration of gypsum rain precipitation and liquid drop were found in the contrast unit. It was suggested that power plants should take measures to increase flue gas temperature and to eliminate gypsum rain emissions. The national emissions standard for thermal power plants should include monitoring methods and assessment system, for taking full consideration to kinds of pollutant emissions and their impact on the environment, such as gypsum rain and CPM.
Key words〗 Gypsum rain; Condensable particulate matter; Coalfired thermal power plants
〖基金〗上海市环保局基金资助项目(沪环科2015-42号)〖JP〗

〖篇 名〗应用小鼠淋巴细胞彗星试验检测地下水遗传毒性
〖作 者〗刘瑞祥1,2,边高鹏1,2,兰婷婷1,孙学茹1,贾慧珍1,任嘉红1,2
〖机 构〗1.长治学院生物科学与技术系  2.太行山生态与环境研究所
〖摘 要〗应用小鼠淋巴细胞彗星试验对长治市5个点位地下水水质作遗传毒性研究。结果表明,各水样有机浓集物均可对小鼠淋巴细胞DNA产生不同程度的遗传损伤,随着剂量的增加,Olive尾矩与阴性对照组(0.72±0.09)相比均有显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.01)。在试验浓度范围内,以彗星尾部DNA含量、彗星尾长、尾矩和Olive尾矩所指示的DNA损伤程度随剂量增大而逐渐增加,存在显著的剂量-效应关系,其相关系数>0.815。
〖关键词〗遗传毒性;小鼠淋巴细胞; DNA损伤;彗星试验;地下水
Abstract〗In this paper, the genotoxicity of water quality in ground water were investigated with the comet assay in Changzhi. The results showed that different degrees of DNA damage in mouse lymphocytes was induced after exposure to the organic extracts from all water samples, and the significant differences of DNA damage in Olive tail moment (OTM) with dose increases were shown between the sample groups and the solvent control groups. In the test concentration range, the extent of DNA damage in the comet tail percentage of DNA (TD), tail length (TL), tail moment (TM) and Olive tail moment indicated gradually increased with dose increases. There was a significant doseresponse relationship, the correlation coefficients is over 0.815. 
Key words〗 Genotoxicity; Mouse lymphocytes; DNA damage; Comet assay; Ground water
〖基金〗山西省高等学校大学生创新创业训练重点基金资助项目(No.2015426);地方高校国家级大学生创新创业训练计划基金资助项目(No.201510122001)

〖篇 名〗便携式XRF土壤重金属检测仪在环境应急监测中的应用探讨
〖作 者〗段雪梅1,2,张燕波1,文军1,曾俊源1
〖机 构〗1.常州市环境监测中心  2.常州大学
〖摘 要〗系统评估了便携式XRF重金属检测仪的精密度、准确度及测定影响因素,开展了该方法测定土壤中Cu、Zn、As、Pb、Cr与国标分析方法的系统比对。结果表明:上述5种元素的方法检出限为5.7 mg/kg~16.0 mg/kg,土壤标准样品测定6次结果的RSD为1.0%~4.7%,Zn、Pb和As测定结果的相对误差<10%;与国标法相比,便携式XRF重金属检测仪测定Cu、Zn、As、Pb的准确度较好,测定Cr的准确度波动较大。将该方法用于应急污染事故监测,可迅速锁定污染物及污染区域,实现野外分析的预判。
〖关键词〗金属元素;X射线荧光光谱法;原子吸收分光光度法;原子荧光分光光度法;应急监测;土壤
Abstract〗The precision and accuracy of portable XRF heavy metal measuring instrument were evaluated. A comparison of the national standard method with the current method in determining Cu、Zn、As、Pb、Cr showed that the method detection limits were in range of 5.7 mg/kg~16.0 mg/kg. The RSD of the standard soil samples were from 1.0% to 4.7% by 6 duplicate measurements, and the RSD of Zn, Pb, As were small than 10%. This method had a good accuracy in determination Cu,Zn,As and Pb. A large fluctuant accuracy was observed in Cr measurement. When applying in environmental emergency monitoring, this method could help in quick identifying the pollutants and making predictions in the field.
Key words〗Metallic element; XRF; Atomic absorption spectrophotography; Atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry; Emergency monitoring; Soils
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41101491);国家自然科学基金青年基金资助项目(21107006)

〖篇 名〗便携式GC-MS法快速测定固定污染源废气中的VOCs
〖作 者〗宋祖华1,谢馨1,柏松1,母应锋1,马光军1,杨正标1,凌娟2
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境监测中心站  2.南京市鼓楼区环境保护局
〖摘 要〗采用便携式GC-MS法快速测定固定污染源废气中VOCs,32种VOCs在2×10-7~1×10-6范围内线性良好,方法检出限为2×10-9~1×10-8,标准气体样品6次测定结果的RSD为1.9%~19.1%,环境空气样品的加标回收率为66.2%~116%。在实际现场监测固定污染源中VOCs时,使用速查(Survey)功能可初步判断样品浓度,确定稀释倍数。比对试验结果表明,气袋和玻璃注射器采样法对VOCs测定结果无显著性差异。
〖关键词〗挥发性有机物;固定污染源;便携式气相色谱-质谱联用法;废气
Abstract〗A portable GCMS method was established for rapid determination of VOCs in exhaust gases from stationary sources. 32 kinds of VOCs had good linearity in (2×10-7~1×10-6) volume fraction. The method detection limits were in the range of 2×10-9 to 1×10-8.The RSD of calibration gases by 6 duplicate measurements were from 1.9%to 19.1%. A recovery range of 66.2%~116% was obtained in ambient air samples. In the actual onsite monitoring of VOCs from stationary sources, the sample concentration could be preliminarily judged by survey function so as to determine the dilution factor. A comparison test showed that there was no significant difference between the sampling methods of air bag and glass syringe.
Key words〗VOCs; Stationary Source; Portable GCMS; Exhaust gas
〖基金〗江苏省环境监测科研基金资助项目(1606)

〖篇 名〗生活垃圾焚烧炉烟气中二噁英排放水平及控制措施
〖作 者〗钱莲英1,潘淑萍1,徐哲明2,徐茵茵2
〖机 构〗1.浙江省环境监测中心 2.浙江环境监测工程有限公司
〖摘 要〗对浙江省14家企业32台生活垃圾焚烧炉开展验收监测,结果表明,其烟气二噁英的排放值均能达到现行标准的限值要求(0.013 ng TEQ/m3~0.100 ng TEQ/m3,平均值为0.059 ng TEQ/m3),焚烧每吨生活垃圾二噁英的排放量为248.1 ng。分析了二噁英的主要生成途径与控制措施,提出了做好垃圾分类与预处理,加强人员培训,运营管理公开、透明、规范化等进一步降低二噁英排放水平的建议。
〖关键词〗二噁英;垃圾焚烧;烟气污染;排放水平;控制措施;浙江省
Abstract〗The monitoring results of 32 waste incinerators from 14 enterprises in Zhejiang Province showed that emission concentrations of dioxins in solid waste incinerator flue gas ranged from 0.013 ng TEQ/m3 to 0.100 ng TEQ/m3 with an average value of 0.059 ng TEQ/m3, which all meet national standard at present. 248.1 ng of dioxins was generated per ton of household garbage incineration. Based on dioxins formation paths and control measures research, several suggestions were proposed to help achieve dioxins emission reduction, such as accomplishing garbage classification and pretreatment, strengthening personnel training and establishing open, transparent, normative operation management.
Key words〗Dioxins; Municipal solid waste incineration; Flue gases pollution; Emission concentration; Control measures; Zhejiang Province
〖基金〗浙江省环保科技计划基金资助项目(2016A006)

〖篇 名〗石化装置停工放空的VOCs排放估算参数要求探讨
〖作 者〗贾瑜玲1,2,崔积山1,牛皓1,3,王赫婧1
〖机 构〗1.环境保护部环境工程评估中心  2.四川省环境工程评估中心 3.中国石油集团安全环保技术研究院
〖摘 要〗石化装置开停工及检维修过程中的泄压吹扫放空是石化企业VOCs的重要排放源项之一。分析了我国石化企业对停工及检维修的现行操作规范与《石化行业VOCs污染源排查工作指南》中对该源项核算方法参数要求的不符之处,并参照美国炼油厂有毒有害空气污染物国家排放标准的相关规定,提出了监测和操作方面的改进建议。
〖关键词〗挥发性有机物;石化装置;停工放空;排放估算
Abstract〗 Depressurization and purging during petrochemical device startup/shutdown and maintenance process were the main sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission in petrochemical plant. The inconsistency of emission accounting method between current operation specification for shutdown and maintenance practices in petrochemical plant and “Guidelines for VOCs Pollution Sources in the Petrochemical Industry” was analyzed. Improvement suggestions for monitoring and operation were made referring to U.S.A. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Petroleum Refineries.
Key words〗Volatile organic compounds; Petrochemical device; Shutdown purging; Emission estimation
〖基金〗环境保护部“工业源VOCs污染控制管理体系及方法研究”基金资助项目(2110301)

〖篇 名〗拉林河流域地下水污染特征分析
〖作 者〗陈瑞晖1,2,陈海洋1,2,滕彦国1,2,吴劲1,2,李娇1,2,王金生1,2
〖机 构〗1.北京师范大学水科学研究院   2.北京师范大学地下水污染控制与修复教育部工程研究中心
〖摘 要〗应用自主研发的傍河取水水质监测与污染预警管理系统对拉林河流域地下水进行污染评价和污染成因分析。通过对样品的采集和分析,说明拉林河流域地下水铁、锰、氨氮和硝酸盐劣于国家地下水环境3级标准,且空间分布具有较强的异质性,可能具有一定的环境生态风险。通过改进的模糊数学法评价拉林河流域地下水污染,提出针对傍河取水工程的地下水保护方案。
〖关键词〗污染特征;环境质量评价;地下水;拉林河流域
Abstract〗A riverside pumping water quality monitoring and pollution forewarning management system, which was selfdeveloped, was used to assess the environmental quality of groundwater and to analyze the causes of pollution in Lalin River Basin. Based on the collecting and analyzing of the samples, it was found that the groundwater in Lalin River basin may have some environmental and ecological risks for the reason that the level of Fe, Mn,NO-3 and NH-4-N in groundwater exceed the National Third Level and the spatial distribution had a strong heterogeneity. Finally, groundwater protection scheme for the riverside pumping project was proposed according to the analytical study of the groundwater pollution in Lalin River Basin by the improved Fuzzy Math Method.
Key words〗Pollution characteristics; Environmental quality assessment; Groundwater; Lalin River Basin
〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2014XZ07201-010);国家自然科学青年基金资助项目(210100053)

〖篇 名〗不同滤筒中无机元素含量探讨
〖作 者〗毕越1,成永霞1,赵小学1,王龙飞1,滕恩江2,张霖琳2*
〖机 构〗1.河南省重金属污染监测与修复重点实验室  2.中国环境监测总站
〖摘 要〗选择国内10家制造商的玻璃纤维滤筒和国外2家制造商的石英滤筒,分别测定空白滤筒中的铍、铬、铅等17种元素,探讨不同滤筒中各元素的含量分布,同时结合相关分析方法标准的质控要求,评价各制造商玻璃纤维滤筒在废气监测中的适用性。
〖关键词〗无机元素;玻璃纤维滤筒;石英滤筒;电感耦合等离子体质谱法
Abstract〗Glass fiber filter cartridges from 10 domestic manufacturers and quartz filter cartridges from 2 foreign manufacturers were selected in this study, which were used to determine the background content of 17 elements such as Be,Cr,Pb ad so on. Each element content distribution was discussed. According to the quality control requirements of responding standard analysis methods, it was assessed the feasibility of the glass fiber filter cartridge made by different manufacturers in exhaust gas monitoring.
Key words〗Inorganic element; Glass fiber filter cartridge; Quartz filter cartridge; Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
〖基金〗环保公益性行业科研专项基金资助项目(201309050)