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2017年第4期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2017-09-14 15:54  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

  
2017年第4期目次及主要文章中英文摘要

无人机助力铁路施工期环境监理的研究........................................蔡志洲,刘镭,杨悦,等(1)
浅论企业自行监测方案中执行排放标准的审核................................杨驰宇,滕洪辉,于凯,等(5)
农产品产地土壤重金属外源污染来源解析及防控策略研究......................师荣光,郑向群,龚琼,等(9)
水雾荷电除尘效率影响因素实验研究及其权重分析..........................伍长福,李义杰,陈祖云,等(14)
典型硅藻生长相关因素的灰色关联度研究与模型....................................李强,张芹,南红岩(19)
武汉城区秋季大气挥发性有机物污染特征及部分物种来源的初步分析............段佳鹏,梁胜文,李蒲,等(23)
珠江口黄茅海表层海水和沉积物中重金属的分布及评价........................彭鹏飞,李绪录,杨琴,等(28)
西藏尼洋河水环境重金属元素水平与风险评估................................拉巴次仁,布多,谭欣,等(33)
苏州工业园区大气PM2.5中主要重金属污染特征及其健康风险评价.................邹卉,张斌,万正茂,等(37)
青海省那棱格勒河下游绿洲区生态环境现状评价....................................范亚宁,刘康,古超(42)
大气中氯苯类化合物在常用吸附剂上的性能探讨............................许亚璐,许行义,钟光剑,等(46)
碳酸盐体系离子色谱法快速测定水体中碘化物................................宋冰冰,田耘,李仁勇,等(50)
衍生化气相色谱-质谱联用法测定土壤中多种酚类化合物.........................周浩,张瑶琴,刘中,等(53)
水体中藻类叶绿素a提取方法的比较...............................................陈明,孙洁梅,李敏(57)
江苏省含低放射性废渣清洁解控技术规范探讨................................周程,车晓翔,蒋若澄,等(60)
广州市冬季PM2.5污染过程二次水溶性无机离子组分特征.....................刘文彬,王宇俊,黄祖照,等(65)
HACH氨氮水质自动监测分析仪进口试剂国产化配方研究 .......................黄杰华,候化明,梁鸿,等(69)
 
主要文章中英文摘要

〖篇 名〗无人机助力铁路施工期环境监理的研究
〖作 者〗蔡志洲1 刘镭 1杨悦2 林伟 1
〖机 构〗1.交通运输部环境保护中心,2.北京中咨华宇环保技术有限公司
〖摘 要〗在湖北某在建铁路的环境监理工作中,采用无人机遥感监测的图视频和摄影测量技术,围绕识别工程的影响面积、体积、环水保措施充分性等内容,制订了完整的技术方案,包括无人机选型、飞行航线规划、地面分辨率设定等,并进行了实践。利用外业采集的矢量影像,通过PIX4D软件处理成为全数字三维模型,利用ARCGIS软件测量、归类,平面精度达到厘米级别。进一步对有关数据分析、提炼,从而将监理工作中原先以定性监督为主的方法提升到定量化水平,提高了工作质量和效率。提出今后应在无人机合法飞行、监理方案、数据库开发等方面继续深化相关研究和应用。
〖关键词〗无人机系统;铁路;环境监理;遥感
Abstract〗A railway being built in Hubei was taken as the study subject, the digital photographs obtained through remote sensing by UAS and the techniques of photogrammetry were used in the research. Comprehensive plans for the drone types, the flight route planning, and the ground resolution were planned in order to identify the impact acreage, the impact volume, and the sufficiency of the environmental protection and watersoil conservation in the project. The plans were then put to practice. The photographs obtained through fieldwork were processed by PIX4D and became alldigital 3dimensional models. They were then measured and classified through ARCGIS, with the plane accuracy reaching to 10 cmlevel. Through further analysis and extraction of the relevant data, the supervision that used to be qualityfocused is now promoted to a quantitative level, and the working efficiency is also improved. The achievement has been acknowledged by the parties of both construction and environmental management. Future research in UASassisted supervision will focus on the legality of drone flying, the design of supervision plans, and the development of database.
Key words〗Unmanned aircraft system (UAS); Railway; Environment supervision; Remote sensing
〖基金〗交通运输部环境保护中心科研基金资助项目(JTBHB-2015-001)

〖篇 名〗浅论企业自行监测方案中执行排放标准的审核
〖作 者〗杨驰宇1,滕洪辉2,于凯3,王霞3,刘清华4
〖机 构〗1.四平市环境保护监测站,2.吉林师范大学环境科学与工程学院,3.吉林省环境监测中心站,4.长春市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗分析了企业自行监测方案中执行污染物排放标准在适用类别、标准变更、适用范围、涵盖的污染物种类等方面存在的主要问题及原因,并从企业执行排放标准的原则、排放标准变更及(执行)时间变化、工艺特点与排放标准的关系、排放污染物种类的识别等角度,提出了审核时应把握的关键点。
〖关键词〗自行监测方案;污染物排放标准;审核
Abstract〗The main problems and reasons that existed in the application type, standard change, applicable scope and pollutants types were analyzed when implementing the emission standards in the enterprise selfmonitoring program. The audit key points were proposed based on the principle, execution time changes, the relationship within the discharge of pollutants emission standards and process characteristics and pollutant types.
Key words〗Selfmonitoring program; Pollutant emission standard; Audit
〖基金〗吉林省科技厅自然科学基金资助项目(20170101165JC)

〖篇 名〗农产品产地土壤重金属外源污染来源解析及防控策略研究
〖作 者〗师荣光1,郑向群1,龚琼1,韩建华2,赵玉杰1,周其文1,丁永祯1,王贺程1
〖机 构〗1.农业部环境保护科研监测所,2.天津市农业环境保护管理监测站
〖摘 要〗分析了工业生产排放、污水灌溉、矿产资源开发、农业投入品施用、大气颗粒物降尘及固体废弃物堆放等农产品产地土壤重金属主要外源污染来源,在此基础上构建了包括工业过程源、固定燃烧源、灌溉水源、废弃物堆放源、流动源和农业投入品源的来源清单,并从建立健全源头预防和强化过程控制2个方面,提出了加强农产品产地土壤重金属污染监管的相关建议。
〖关键词〗重金属污染;来源清单;防控策略;土壤;农产品产地
Abstract〗The main sources of heavy metal pollution in soil of agricultural producing area were analyzed in the paper, that were from industrial discharge, sewage irrigation, mineral resource development, agricultural inputs application, atmospheric particulates deposition, solid waste stacking, et al. Based on this, an inventory of industrial process source, fixed combustion source, source of irrigation water and solid waste stacking, mobile source and agricultural inputs source was built up. Related suggestions on heavy metal pollution supervision were proposed from two aspects: establishing and improving source prevention and strengthening process control.
Key words〗Heavy metal pollution; Source list; Prevention and control strategy; Soils; Agricultural producing area
〖基金〗国家重点研发计划“化肥农药减施增效技术环境效应监测技术研究及监测网络系统构建”基金资助项目(2016YFD0201201);国家重点研发计划“化肥农药减施增效的环境效应评价”基金资助项目(2016YFD0201200)

〖篇 名〗水雾荷电除尘效率影响因素实验研究及其权重分析
〖作 者〗邬长福1,2,李义杰1,2*,陈祖云1,2,欧阳启明1,2,陈亮1,2
〖机 构〗1.江西理工大学资源与环境工程学院,2.江西省矿冶环境污染控制重点实验室
〖摘 要〗实验采用新型高效水雾荷电振弦栅除尘方法,以过流速度v、水雾荷质比β及芒刺数n 3个除尘效率影响因素为研究对象。在喷嘴雾化参数及振弦栅参数一定时,通过单因素实验得到除尘效率与过流速度呈二次负相关,与水雾荷质比呈二次负相关,与芒刺数呈一次正相关;利用SPSS软件对实验数据处理后得到各因素对除尘效率的权重系数为过流速度0.885、水雾荷质比0.094、芒刺数0.021,各因素对除尘效率的影响从高到低依次为过流速度>水雾荷质比>芒刺数;根据单因素相关性及其权重系数,提出三因素综合除尘效率理论回归方程为η=94.479-0.885v+0.094β+0.021n。
〖关键词〗水雾荷电;除尘效率;影响因素;权重系数
Abstract〗A new and high performance method for dust removal using charged water mist vibrating grid was adopted in this experiment. Three influence factors were selected as the study objects, which were flow velocity(v),chargetomass ratio of water mist(β) and the number of barb(n). Single factor experiment results showed that when the atomizing parameter of nozzle and vibrating grid parameter were constant,the dust removal efficiency was negatively correlated with the squared flow velocity, the same as the chargetomass ratio of water mist, and was positively correlated with the number of barb. Using the SPSS software to deal with the experimental data,  the weight coefficient of dust removal efficiency for each factor were as follows: the flow velocity was 0.885, the chargetomass ratio of water mist was 0.094, and the number of barb was 0.021. These impact factors on removal efficiency ranged in descending order as flow velocity, chargetomass ratio of water mist and barb number. Based on the experimental results of single factor correlation and the weight coefficient, a theoretical regression equation of three factors comprehensive dust removal efficiency was put forward, that is η=94.479-0.885v+0.094β+0.021n.
Key words〗Water mist charged; Dust removal efficiency; Influence factor; Weight coefficient
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目 (51464016);江西省教育厅科技基金资助项目(GJJ14421)

〖篇 名〗典型硅藻生长相关因素的灰色关联度研究与模型
〖作 者〗李强1,张芹2,南红岩3*
〖机 构〗1.重庆环科院博达环保科技有限公司,2.重庆市生态环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗利用灰色关联分析法研究水动力条件(流速和紊流耗散率)、DTN、DTP、DO、pH值对硅藻生长的关联度。结果表明,由于水动力条件的加入,增强了DTN、DTP、pH值、DO与硅藻生长间的关联。水动力对硅藻生长的影响更多是间接影响,通过改变营养盐、DO及酸碱度与硅藻的相互作用来影响硅藻的生长。此外,实验得到基于流速或紊流耗散率的硅藻生长模型。
〖关键词〗硅藻;生长因素;灰色关联分析法;水动力条件;模型
Abstract〗The correlation of hydrodynamic conditions (velocity and turbulent dissipation rate),DTN, DTP, DO, pH to diatom growth were studied by using grey correlation analysis method. The research results showed that hydrodynamic conditions strengthened the correlation between DTN, DTP, pH, DO, and diatom growth. So the hydrodynamic conditions had more indirect effects on diatom growth by changing interaction between the nutrient, dissolved oxygen and pH. In addition, this experiment also obtained the growth models of diatom based on the velocity and turbulence dissipation rate. 
Key words〗 Diatom; Growth factors; Grey correlation analysis method; Hydrodynamic conditions; Model
〖基金〗中央高校基金资助项目(CDJZR14215501)

〖篇 名〗武汉城区秋季大气挥发性有机物污染特征及部分物种来源的初步分析
〖作 者〗段佳鹏,梁胜文,李蒲,郁佳,陈安雄
〖机 构〗武汉市环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗于2014年10月采用GCMS挥发性有机物(VOCs)在线监测系统在武汉城区开展大气VOCs连续监测,并分析VOCs体积分数的时间变化特征、光化学活性差异及来源。结果表明,武汉城区总VOCs体积分数为45.16×10-9,从高到低依次为烷烃>烯烃>芳香烃;VOCs日变化呈双峰型特征,峰值分别出现在 6:00—8:00和19:00—23:00;T/B和E/E的平均比值分别为0.94和0.61,表明气团受机动车影响显著,且存在老化现象;烯烃对OH消耗速率(LOH)和臭氧生成潜势(OFP)的贡献率最大,芳香烃次之,烷烃最低;以3-甲基戊烷为机动车排放示踪物,计算得出非机动车源对乙烯、甲苯和间/对-二甲苯的贡献率分别为85%、55%和70%。
〖关键词〗挥发性有机物;污染特征;来源分析;光化学反应活性;秋季;武汉
Abstract〗A continuous observation was carried out with the GCMC volatile organics online monitoring system for one month in October 2014 in the urban area of Wuhan, the temporal variation characteristics of VOCs were analyzed,as well as their photochemical reactivity and source apportionment. The results showed that the total VOCs was 45.16×10-9(volume fraction), and alkanes were found to be the largest part of VOCs, followed by alkenes,and aromatics were the least. The diurnal variation showed a bimodal characteristic, the maximum value of VOCs occurred at 6:00—8:00 and 19:00—23:00. The ratios of T/B and E/E were 0.94 and 0.61, indicating the significant impact of motor vehicle emission, and possibly due to the aging of the air mass at this site. Alkenes contributed the largest parts of the OH consumption rate(LOH) and the ozone formation potential(OFP), followed by aromatics, and alkanes were the lowest. 3methylpentane, a tracer for vehicle emission, was used to estimate the contributions of traffic versus nontraffic sources. The nontraffic source contribution was significant for ethene(85%) , toluene(55%) and m,pxylene(70%).
Key words〗Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) ; Pollution characteristics; Source analysis; Photochemical reactivity; Autumn; Wuhan
〖基金〗国家重大仪器研发专项“挥发性有机物在线监测系统在环境空气质量监测中的应用示范”基金资助项目(2012YQ060027)

〖篇 名〗珠江口黄茅海表层海水和沉积物中重金属的分布及评价
〖作 者〗彭鹏飞,李绪录,杨琴,彭昆仑,林梵
〖机 构〗国家海洋局南海调查技术中心
〖摘 要〗根据2014年4月对珠江口黄茅海海域表层海水和沉积物中重金属分布的调查监测,采用单因子指数法、内梅罗指数法和生态危害指数法对其重金属污染水平进行评价。结果显示:该海域表层海水中部分站位的Pb、Cu、Zn和Hg超出第一类海水水质标准,内梅罗指数评价表明其整体处于轻污染水平。表层沉积物中部分站位的Hg、As和Cu超出第一类海洋沉积物质量标准,内梅罗指数评价表明其整体处于重污染水平,生态危害指数评价表明其整体可能面临中度风险,Hg为主要风险因子。表层海水中Pb、Cu、Zn具有同源性,表层沉积物中Pb、As、Zn和Cu具有同源性。
〖关键词〗重金属;表层海水;沉积物;污染评价;黄茅海
Abstract〗Distribution of heavy metals in surface seawaters and sediments in Huangmao sea of the Pearl River Estuary was studied based on the survey data on April 2014. The status and ecological hazards of these elements were evaluated by single factor index, Nemerow index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn and Hg in surface waters of some sampling stations exceeded the national standard of first grade seawater quality. Nemerow index showed that the surface seawaters were in slight pollution level as a whole. The concentrations of Hg, As and Cu in surface sediments of some stations exceeded the national standard of first grade sediment quality. Nemerow index showed that the surface sediments were in severe pollution level as a whole. Potential ecological risk index showed that the surface sediments would be faced with a moderate risk of heavy metal. The main risk factor was Hg. Pb, Cu and Zn in the surface seawaters were homologous and Pb, As, Zn and Cu in the surface sediments were homologous.
Key words〗Heavy metals; Surface seawaters; Sediments; Pollution evaluation; Huangmao sea
〖基金〗国家海洋局青年海洋科学基金资助项目(2013509);国家海洋局南海分局海洋科学技术局长基金资助项目(1413)

〖篇 名〗西藏尼洋河水环境重金属元素水平与风险评估
〖作 者〗拉巴次仁1,2,布多2*,谭欣1,2,陈俊丽2,张强英2
〖机 构〗1.天津大学环境科学与工程学院,2.西藏大学理学院
〖摘 要〗在西藏尼洋河流域布设13个代表性采样点采集水样,通过现场测试水样的pH值、电导率等指标和实验室分析水样中18种元素含量,并运用综合指数评价法和Pearson相关性分析法对尼洋河水环境质量状况进行评价。结果表明:尼洋河水样的pH值为8.10~8.80,呈碱性至弱碱性;元素含量基本达到《地表水环境质量标准》(GB 3838—2002)Ⅰ类标准要求;除2、3号采样点重金属元素WQI在1~2之间外,其余11个采样点的WQI均<1,表明尼洋河水环境质量良好,尚未受到重金属明显影响。
〖关键词〗水环境;金属元素;风险评价;尼洋河
Abstract〗The water samples were collected from 13 representative sampling sites in Nyang River Basin in Tibet. The pH value and conductivity of the samples were measured and the contents of 18 kinds of elements in the water samples were analyzed. The comprehensive index method and Pearson correlation analysis method were used to evaluate the environmental quality of Nanyang River. The results showed that the pH value of Nyang River was 8.10~8.80, which was alkaline to weakly alkaline. The element concentration basically met the demand of “Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard”(GB 3838—2002). Except for 2 and 3 sampling points, the WQI of the heavy metal element was between 1 and 2, the remaining 11 sampling points WQI<1, which indicates that the water quality of the Nyang River is good and has not been affected by heavy metals.
Key words〗Water environment; Metal elements; Risk assessment; Nyang River
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(2076005,21267021);“九七三”计划前期研究专项课题基金资助项目(2014CB460612);环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室开放课题基金资助项目(KF2012-8)

〖篇 名〗苏州工业园区大气PM2.5中主要重金属污染特征及其健康风险评价
〖作 者〗邹卉1,2,张斌1,2,万正茂1,2,李晓璇1,2,戴敏1,2,陈辉1,2
〖机 构〗1.中新苏州工业园区清城环境发展有限公司,2.清华大学-苏州工业园区环境科学技术研发基地
〖摘 要〗通过2015年1月、4月、8月、11月对苏州工业园区大气中PM2.5及Pb、Cr、Cd、As、Ni 5种元素质量浓度的监测,并采用《污染场地风险评估技术导则》(HJ 25.3—2014)中推荐模型对该5种元素通过呼吸途径引起的人体健康风险进行评价。结果表明,Pb、Cr、Cd、As、Ni 5种元素平均质量浓度分别为76.2 ng/m3、6.92 ng/m3、1.45 ng/m3、4.14 ng/m3和5.71 ng/m3,平均质量浓度从高到低依次为Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd>As;5种元素的致癌风险与危害熵分别为6.89×10-15~6.84×10-12和2.57×10-9~4.80×10-7,分别低于可接受致癌风险水平(10-6)与可接受危害熵(1)。整体而言,苏州工业园区大气重金属污染程度相对较低。
〖关键词〗PM2.5;重金属;污染特征;健康风险评估;苏州工业园区
Abstract〗For evaluating human health risks of 5 elements including Pb, Cr, Cd, As and Ni in PM2.5 in Suzhou Industrial Park, PM2.5 and the above 5 elements in PM2.5 were monitored in January, April, August, November, 2015. The model recommended by “Technical guidelines for risk assessment of contaminated sites”(HJ 25.3—2014) was used to evaluate the health risks caused by breathing. The results showed the mass concentration of Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Ni in PM2.5 were 76.2 ng/m3、6.92 ng/m3、1.45 ng/m3、4.14 ng/m3 and 5.71 ng/m3 respectively, which showed a descending order of Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd>As. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of these 5 elements were between 6.89×10-15~6.84×10-12 and 2.57×10-9~4.80×10-7, respectively, both were under the acceptable risk level. Overall, the pollution of heavy metals in Suzhou Industrial Park was relatively slight.
Key words〗PM2.5; Heavy metals; Pollution characteristic; Health risk assessment; Suzhou Industrial Park
〖基金〗国家科技支撑计划“生活垃圾收运及处理过程智能监控系统集成及应用” 基金资助项目(2014BAC02B02-05)

〖篇 名〗青海省那棱格勒河下游绿洲区生态环境现状评价
〖作 者〗范亚宁,刘康,古超
〖机 构〗西北大学城市与环境学院
〖摘 要〗采用归一化植被指数、景观多样性指数、景观均匀度指数等技术指标,评价那棱格勒河下游绿洲的生态环境现状。结果表明:那棱格勒河下游绿洲区主要为中植被覆盖(覆盖度30%~60%)区域,占绿洲区总面积的42.83%;低植被覆盖类型(覆盖度10%~30%)和高植被覆盖类型(覆盖度>60%)次之。极低植被覆盖(覆盖度<10%)区域最少,占绿洲区总面积的3.96%。稀疏草地和荒漠为该区域的优势景观,自然生产力等级低,生态系统受外界干扰后难以恢复,极易发生退化与沙化,系统的恢复稳定性与阻抗稳定性都较弱。
〖关键词〗绿洲植被;生态评价;那棱格勒河
Abstract〗This paper evaluated the ecological status in the lower reaches oasis of Nalenggele River using the technical indicators such as normalized difference vegetation index, landscape diversity index, landscape evenness index et al. The results showed that the oasis in the low reaches of Nalenggele River were mainly middle vegetation cover area (coverage was 30%~60%),accounting for 42.83% of the total oasis area. Followed by low vegetation types (10%~30%) and high vegetation types (>60%). The very low vegetation cover area (<10%) was the least, accounting for 3.96% of the total oasis area. The sparse grass and desert were the superior regional landscape. The ecological environment in the study area was fragile, the natural productivity level was low, the ecosystem was difficult to recover once it was subject to external interfered, and degradation and desertification would take occurrence extremely easily, system restore stability and the impedance stability were both weaker.
Key words〗Oasis vegetation; Ecological assessment; Nalenggele River
〖基金〗水利部“青海省那棱格勒河流域水库建设对周围陆生生态环境影响研究”基金资助项目(2016-000052-76-01-001069)

〖篇 名〗大气中氯苯类化合物在常用吸附剂上的性能探讨
〖作 者〗许亚璐,许行义,钟光剑,刘劲松
〖机 构〗浙江省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗通过比对6种吸附剂对氯苯类化合物的吸附性能,同时考察不同废气温度、湿度条件下活性炭对氯苯类化合物的吸附-解吸性能,表明活性炭对氯苯类化合物的吸附性能及在二硫化碳介质中的解吸效能与标准规定的GDX系列无显著性差异。将活性炭管吸附采样用于监测某化工企业厂界无组织排放废气中的氯苯类化合物,结果1,4-二氯苯和1,2,4,5-四氯苯检出。
〖关键词〗氯苯类化合物;气相色谱法;吸附剂;大气
Abstract〗The adsorb properties of activated carbon, silica gel, XAD2 resin, Tenax, florisil,GDX and other commercial adsorbents to chlorobenzenes were studied by comparison. At the same time, the adsorption and desorption performance of activated carbon to chlorobenzenes adsorption were investigated at different temperature and humidity. Results showed that activated carbon had the same adsorption efficiency and stable desorption performance with GDX series in carbon disulfide medium. Applying activated carbon absorbent to collect chlorobenzenes in fugitive emission from a chemical industry, 1,4dichlorobenzene and 1,2,4,5tetrachlorobenzene were detected.
Key words〗Chlorobenzenes; Gas chromatography; Adsorbent; Atmosphere
〖基金〗国家环境保护标准制修订基金资助项目(2014-28)

〖篇 名〗碳酸盐体系离子色谱法快速测定水体中碘化物
〖作 者〗宋冰冰1,2,田耘1,2,李仁勇3,秦迪岚1,2,林海兰1,2,郭倩1,2,朱颖1,2,罗岳平1,2*
〖机 构〗1.湖南省环境监测中心站,2.国家环境保护重金属污染监测重点实验室,3.赛默飞世尔科技(中国)有限公司
〖摘 要〗采用亲水性强的AS22型阴离子交换分离柱处理水样,用离子色谱法测定样品中的碘化物,通过优化样品预处理条件、色谱条件,消除常见阴离子干扰,使方法在0 mg/L~5.00 mg/L范围内线性良好。方法检出限为0.002 mg/L,3个质量浓度水平的标准溶液7次测定结果的RSD为0.5%~3.5%,实际水样的加标回收率为85.2%~100%。
〖关键词〗碘化物;离子色谱法;碳酸盐体系;水质
Abstract〗A method for determination of iodide in water by ion chromatography was presented based on IonPac AS22 Column with carbonate as eluent. This paper discussed the sample pretreatment conditions,the optimization of chromatographic conditions, common anionic interference, calibration curve and the detection limit, precision, accuracy, etc.. The results showed that this method was not subject to other anion interference. It had a wide linear range with correlation coefficient R>0.999. The detection limit was 0.002 mg/L, the relative standard deviations of standard solutions at 3 mass concentration levels were in range of 0.5%~3.5%(n=7). Spiked recovery of practical samples were in range of 85.2%~100%.
Key words〗Iodine; Ion chromatography; Carbonate system; Water quality
〖基金〗国家环境保护标准制修订基金资助项目(环办函[2010]486号)

〖篇 名〗衍生化气相色谱-质谱联用法测定土壤中多种酚类化合物
〖作 者〗周浩1,张瑶琴1,刘中2*,卓毓科1,王嘉岚1,周丽娜1,刘赛赛1
〖机 构〗1.浙江人欣检测研究院股份有限公司,2.宁波市环境保护科学研究设计院
〖摘 要〗采用衍生化气相色谱-质谱联用法测定土壤中17种酚类化合物,通过试验优化方法参数,使17种酚类化合物在0.400 mg/L~10.0 mg/L范围内线性良好。当取样量为10.0 g时,方法检出限在0.01 mg/kg~0.04 mg/kg之间,实际土壤样品的加标回收率为60.4%~104%,6次平行测定结果的RSD不超过12.5%。
〖关键词〗酚类化合物;衍生化;气相色谱-质谱联用法;土壤
Abstract〗The 17 types of phenolic compounds in soil were determined by derivatization gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and the method parameters were optimized through some condition tests, the linearity of various phenolic compounds was good in the range of 0.400 mg/L~10.0 mg/L. When the sampling quantity was 10.0 g, the detection limits were in the range of 0.01 mg/kg to 0.04 mg/kg, the recoveries of the actual soil samples were within 60.4%~104%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 12.5% by 6 reduplicative determinations.
Key words〗Phenolic compounds; Derivatization; Gas chromatography mass spectrometry; Soils
〖基金〗宁波市科技局院所基金资助项目(2012A80004)

〖篇 名〗水体中藻类叶绿素a提取方法的比较
〖作 者〗陈明,孙洁梅,李敏 
〖机 构〗南京市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗考察超声波法、反复冻融法、热乙醇法对小球藻和微囊藻中叶绿素a的提取效果,并与标准方法作比对。结果表明,4种提取方法中,标准方法对藻类提取效果稍逊,热乙醇法对小球藻的提取效果好,而超声波法和反复冻融法对微囊藻的提取效果好。建议针对不同水体中的优势藻类,标准方法可结合热乙醇法和超声波法,用乙醇替换丙酮作为叶绿素a的提取溶剂,并增加超声波破碎步骤,以提高叶绿素a的提取效率。
〖关键词〗叶绿素a;藻类;提取方法;水质
Abstract〗In order to study the extraction effect of chlorophylla from chlorella and microcystis, the ultrasonic method, repeated freezing and thawing method and hot ethanol method were chosen to compare with the standard method. The results showed that the extraction effect of standard method on algae was poor, but on chlorella the extraction effect of hot ethanol method was better, while the extraction effect of ultrasonic method and repeated freezing and thawing method on microcystis were both better. It suggested replacing acetone with ethanol as the solvent for chlorophylla extraction and increasing the ultrasonic crushing step, so as to improve the extraction efficiency of chlorophylla.
Key words〗 Chlorophylla; Algae; Extraction method; Water quality
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研基金资助项目(2015035)

〖篇 名〗江苏省含低放射性废渣清洁解控技术规范探讨
〖作 者〗周程1,朱晓翔1,蒋若澄1,胡建伟2,周健2,戴耀东3
〖机 构〗1.江苏省核与辐射安全监督管理局,2.江苏省辐射环境保护咨询中心,3.南京航空航天大学材料科学与技术学院
〖摘 要〗以江苏省稀土行业废渣实际情况为背景,基于国内外对天然放射性物质(NORM)的管理限值水平,通过理论研究和模型构建,建立了废渣中放射性核素质量活度与现场γ剂量率之间的关系。通过现场实验和样品γ谱核素分析结果进行模型修正,在留有足够安全冗余的情况下确定现场γ剂量率筛选水平,并提出了一套操作性较强的NORM废物γ剂量率筛选现场检验程序。
〖关键词〗天然放射性物质;稀土废渣;γ剂量率筛选;清洁解控;江苏省
Abstract〗Based on the actual situation of rare earth residue in Jiangsu Province, and the domestic and international standards for the management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, through theoretical research and model construction, the relationship between the activity concentration of radionuclides in the wastes and the gamma dose rate was established. The model correction was performed by the field experiment and the results of the gamma spectrum analysis of the samples, the level of gamma dose rate was determined in the case of a sufficient margin of safety. A set of operational field test program for gamma dose rate screening of NORM waste was proposed.
Key words〗 Naturally occurring radioactive materials; Rare earth residue; Gamma dose rate screening; Clearance; Jiangsu Province
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研基金资助项目(2015066,2016003)

〖篇 名〗广州市冬季PM2.5污染过程二次水溶性无机离子组分特征
〖作 者〗刘文彬,王宇骏,黄祖照,邝俊侠,陈彦宁,张金谱
〖机 构〗广州市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗为了解广州地区灰霾天气成因,基于城市超级站,对2013年12月1日—12月8日期间2次灰霾天气过程的水溶性无机离子污染特征进行研究。结果表明:监测期间二次离子(SNA)SO2-4、NO-3、NH+4分别占PM2.5质量浓度的15.8%、7.4%、7.0%;2次污染过程SNA对PM2.5贡献显著,机动车排放和燃煤是PM2.5的主要污染来源。广州冬季属于富氨区,2次污染过程都伴随着NH+4显著增加,NH+4 主要以(NH4)2SO4和NH4NO3形式存在。
〖关键词〗细颗粒物;二次离子;污染过程;组分特征;广州
Abstract〗In order to understand the origin of haze in Guangzhou, the mass concentrations of watersolubility ions were monitored during two haze events(1st—8th,Dec 2013)at Guangzhou Atmospheric Supersite. The results indicated as follows: The concentrations of SO2-4,NO-3 and NH+4 accounted for 15.8%, 7.4% and 7.0% of PM2.5, respectively . SNA increased significantly during two pollution process. Vehicle emission and coal combustion were the major pollution sources of PM2.5 in Guangzhou. Besides, Guangzhou belongs to rich ammonia area in winter, NH+4 increased significantly during two pollutant episode.In addition, NH+4existed in the form of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 in PM2.5 during the observation.
Key words〗PM2.5; SNA; Pollution episode; Component characteristics; Guangzhou
〖基金〗广州市科技计划基金资助项目(201300000130)

〖篇 名〗HACH氨氮水质自动监测分析仪进口试剂国产化配方研究
〖作 者〗黄杰华1,侯化明2,梁鸿1,罗澍1,张明棣1,唐力1
〖机 构〗1.深圳市环境监测中心站,2.默克化工技术(上海)有限公司
〖摘 要〗分析HACH氨氮自动监测分析仪所用进口试剂配方中氧化剂、显色剂、催化剂、掩蔽剂、缓冲液的组分、试剂用量、反应机理、吸收光谱、酸碱度、发色时间和温度、显色产物的稳定性、灵敏度、干扰及消除,以及存放条件的差异,自行研发国产配方,并将该国产配方试剂与进口试剂做试验比对,结果2种试剂的效能无显著差异。
〖关键词〗氨氮;国产试剂;进口试剂;自动监测;水质
Abstract〗This paper analyzed the reagent formula for the HACH ammonia monitor, including oxidant, chromogenic reagent, catalyst, masking agent, component of buffer solution, dosage of agents, reaction mechanism, absorption spectrum, pH value, coloring time and coloring temperature, stability of coloration product, the sensitivity, interference and storage conditions. According to this study, a domestic reagent formula was developed. This reagent formula had no significant difference with the imported reagent through comparison test.
Key words〗Ammonia nitrogen; Domestic reagent; Imported reagent; Auto monitoring; Water quality
〖基金〗深圳市人居环境委员会“氨氮水质自动监测分析试剂配方研究”基金资助项目