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2017年第5期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2017-10-23 16:28  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

 
 2017年第5期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
 
水环境中多环芳烃的污染现状及研究进展................................................郑志周,李海燕(1)
云南省锌行业重金属类危险废物产排污系数研究................................孙科源,安俊菁,黄凯,等(7)
室外空气净化设备的设计与试验研究..........................................柳一琳,李鸿,夏愉乐,等(12)
典型钢铁企业汞排放水平及排放特征研究....................................宋祖华,高蓓蕾,张迪生,等(17)
乌梁素海表层水中重金属元素的空间分布及生态风险评估......................李卫平,王晓云,段浩洁,等(21)
宿州市沱河沉积物氮磷和有机碳分布及评价..................................李云鹏,李致春,余宝宝,等(25)
基于Landsat 8遥感影像的邵武至光泽高速公路生态环境质量评价研究...............姚爱冬,管文科,冯益明(29)
粤北上坝村稻田土壤及间隙水中重金属污染研究................................张艳林,邹志辉,王梅,等(33)
三维荧光光谱法测定市政污水中有机污染物.................................易莹,周艳伟,BridgemanJ,等(37)
VOCs在线监测系统与SUMMA罐采样-气质联用法的比对分析........................吕志勇,梁胜文,白石,等(40)
顶空气相色谱法测定漓江底泥中的三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯........................李常丽,唐丽嵘,彭靖恺,等(44)
β射线吸收法双通道PM2.5/PM10监测装置性能探究............................高玉梅,孟国鑫,楼晟荣,等(47)
多因素综合作用对铜绿微囊藻生长的影响............................................张芹,李强,南红岩(51)
涪陵页岩气田一期工程环境影响调查............................................张思兰,何敏,张春,等(56)
基于车载监测法的Ⅱ型大城市射频公众曝露探讨................................武攀峰,王国旗,陆炜,等(60)
高分辨率遥感影像在土壤环境质量监测点位布设中的应用............................蒋明,文建辉,黄晓蓉(64)
佛山市禅城区天然气公交车排气污染分析........................................................赵慧洁(68)
 
主要文章中英文摘要
 
〖篇 名〗水环境中多环芳烃的污染现状及研究进展
〖作 者〗郑志周 1 ,李海燕 2* 
〖机 构〗1.中化石油广东有限公司 2.中国水产科学研究院,珠江水产研究所
〖摘 要〗概述了多环芳烃(PAHs)的属性和主要来源,介绍了其在不同环境介质中的分析方法、污染状况、迁移转化及风险评估现状,提出了进一步加强复杂环境基质中PAHs分析方法、不同环境介质中PAHs迁移转化特征,以及PAHs环境生态风险和人体健康风险等方面研究的建议。
〖关键词〗多环芳烃;分析方法;迁移转化;风险评估;水环境
Abstract〗The properties and main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were summarized and the analytical methods, pollution status, transformation and risk assessment of PAHs were introduced in this study. Some proposals were made on the efficient analytical methods of PAHs in complex environment matrix, the transfer and transformation character of PAHs in different environmental medium, and PAHs risk assessment to the environment and human health.
Key words〗Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Analytical methods; Transformation; Risk assessment; Water environment
〖基金〗中国水产科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项基金资助项目(2016HY-ZC0501)

〖篇 名〗云南省锌行业重金属类危险废物产排污系数研究
〖作 者〗孙科源,安俊菁,黄凯 * ,胡若鹏
〖机 构〗云南省固体废物管理中心
〖摘 要〗以云南省锌采选和冶炼行业重金属类危险废物为对象,针对其产生种类与数量、处理方式及处置现状进行调查,采用物料衡算、实测法核算和经验估值等方法对锌冶炼过程中重金属类危险废物的产污和排放系数进行计算。结果表明,锌矿山采选过程产生的固体废物不属于危险废物;锌冶炼不同工段产污系数最大的危险废物为烟尘,在产能<5万t/a的锌冶炼焙烧、电解锌、电炉炼锌和精馏过程中烟尘的产污系数分别为178.7 kg/t~268 kg/t、218 kg/t~312.6 kg/t、188.5 kg/t~230.9 kg/t、12.5 kg/t~21.7 kg/t;在产能≥5万t/a的锌冶炼焙烧、电解锌过程中烟尘产污系数分别为 693 kg/t~863 kg/t、256.5 kg/t~384.7 kg/t,排污主要集中在电解锌工段。
〖关键词〗产排污系数;重金属;危险废物;锌冶炼行业
Abstract〗Based on the survey and statistics of generation, utilization and disposal status of heavy metal hazardous wastes of zinc industry in Yunnan Province, using material balance, experiencebased valuation and other methods, the producing and discharging coefficients of heavy metal hazardous wastes of zinc industry in Yunnan Province was calculated. The results indicated that solid waste from zinc mining did not belong to hazardous wastes. Dust had the largest producing coefficient in various zinc smelting process. When zinc capacity was less than 50 000 t/a, the coefficient of dust in the process of roasting, zinc electrolysis, zinc smelting with electric furnace and zinc refining were 178.7 kg/t~268 kg/t, 218 kg/t~312.6 kg/t, 188.5 kg/t~230.9 kg/t, 12.5 kg/t~21.7 kg/t, respectively. The coefficient of dust in roasting and zinc electrolysis were 693 kg/t~863 kg/t and 256.5 kg/t~384.7 kg/t when the capacity of zinc was over 50 000 t/a. Emission load of hazardous wastes mainly concentrated in the process of zinc electrolysis.
Key words〗Coefficient of production and emission; Heavy metal; Hazardous wastes; Zinc industry
〖基金〗云南省危险废物处理专项基金资助项目(2016YWF001)

〖篇 名〗室外空气净化设备的设计与试验研究
〖作 者〗柳一琳,李鸿,夏愉乐,张雷
〖机 构〗长沙理工大学电气与信息工程学院
〖摘 要〗针对目前我国出现大范围雾霾天气的状况,提出将静电除尘技术与光触媒催化技术相结合,设计了一种室外空气净化设备。经过CFD理论和能耗分析,论证了方法的可行性。通过对比实验证明该设备对空气污染物的处理效果明显,10 m测试范围的处理效率最大达90%,100 m测试范围的处理效率最大为50%,即该设备在方圆100 m范围内具有快速、有效改善大气环境的作用。
〖关键词〗室外空气净化设备;静电除尘;光触媒;设计和试验
Abstract〗 As the regard of the serious air pollution in our country, it proposes an outdoor air cleaner which based on electrostatic technology and photocatalysis of TiO2. Through CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method and analysis of energy consumption, it is proved that this method is feasible. In the 10 m test, the efficiency of haze removal is up to 90%, while in the 100 m test, it is 50%. All in all, it is proved that within 100 m, this precipitators can improve the air environment rapidly and efficiently.
Key words〗Outdoor air cleaner; Electrostatic precipitation; Photocatalysis; Design and experiment

〖篇 名〗典型钢铁企业汞排放水平及排放特征研究
〖作 者〗宋祖华 1,高蓓蕾2,张迪生1,马光军1,谢馨1,武中林1
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境监测中心站;2.江苏省环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗以某典型钢铁企业为研究对象,测定企业废气、废水、固废汞排放水平,并分析汞排放特征。研究表明,球团、烧结、高炉工艺废气排口烟尘中汞排放浓度和排放速率明显低于烟气;汞主要以气态形式排放,烧结工艺排口废气汞最高浓度分别是其他2个排口的7倍和3倍。球团、烧结、高炉、电炉四工艺环节中,烧结汞排放速率占四工艺汞排放速率总和的87%。半干法脱硫、氨法脱硫、石灰石石膏脱硫对废气中汞的去除效率分别为90.0%、78.7%和29.9%。企业废水排放未检出汞,脱硫产生固废汞含量明显高于除尘产生固废汞含量,脱硫灰汞含量是脱硫石膏的15倍。
〖关键词〗汞;钢铁企业;排放水平;废气;废水;固体废物
Abstract〗Taking typical iron and steel enterprise as the research object, this work has determined the mercury emission level of waste gas, wastewater and solid waste, mercury emission characteristics has been analyzed as well. The result showed that in the process of pelletizing, sinter and blast furnace, mercury emission concentration and mercury emission rate were lower in the exhaust gas than that in the soot. Mercury emits mainly in the form of gas. The highest concentration of mercury in the exhaust gas of sinter was 7 times and 3 times higher than that of the other 2 emission ports. In the 4 process of pellets, sintering, blast furnace and electric furnace, the proportion of the total mercury emission rate in sinter was the largest, accounting for 87% of the total mercury emission rate of the 4 process. The removal efficiency of mercury in flue gas by semi dry desulfurization, ammonia desulphurization, limestone gypsum desulfurization was 90%, 78.7% and 29.9%, respectively. No mercury was detected in waste water discharged by the enterprise. The mercury content of solid waste produced by desulfurization was significantly higher than that produced by dust precipitation. The mercury content in desulfurization soot was 15 times of that in desulfurization limestone gypsum.
Key words〗Mercury; Steel enterprises; Emission level; Exhaust gas; Waste water; Solid waste
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研基金资助项目 (2014022)

〖篇 名〗乌梁素海表层水中重金属元素的空间分布及生态风险评估
〖作 者〗李卫平1,王晓云1,2,段浩洁1,于玲红1*
〖机 构〗1. 内蒙古科技大学能源与环境学院 ; 2.运城市建筑设计研究院
〖摘 要〗于2014年4月采集乌梁素海表层水样,利用地统计方法分析重金属元素Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Pb、Zn的空间分布特征,并通过计算元素的富集系数来分析其富集水平。结果表明:重金属元素具有相似的空间分布特征,除局部区域外均呈现出随水流方向从北到南递减的趋势,Cu在局部区域存在高值区,Pb在水流经10号采样点后质量浓度逐渐升高。元素的富集系数从高到低依次为Hg>Cd>Cu>Zn>Cr>Pb,其中Hg富集非常明显,达到高等富集和很高富集水平,Cd在4号采样点达到中等富集水平,其他元素为不足最小富集水平。
〖关键词〗重金属元素;空间分布;生态风险评估;乌梁素海
AbstractThis paper analysed the spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the surface water of Ulansuhai Lake in April 2014 by statistical method, and the elements enrichment level by calculating the enrichment coefficient. The results showed that heavy metal elements in the whole lake had similar spatial distribution characteristics. Besides some local area of the lake, it decreased from north to south along with the water flow. Cu had a high value in some areas, the concentration of Pb increased after water pass through No.10 sampling point. The descending order of the element enrichment coefficient was Hg>Cd>Cu>Zn>Cr>Pb. Hg enriched obviously, which reached to high and higher enrichment level. Cd reached to middle enrichment level at No.4 sampling point, other elements were not enough to the minimum level of enrichment.
Key words〗Heavy metal element; Spatial distribution; Ecological risk assessment; Ulansuhai Lake
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41263010)

〖篇 名〗宿州市沱河沉积物氮磷和有机碳分布及评价
〖作 者〗李云鹏1,李致春2,3*,余宝宝1,王春义1,查月亮1
〖机 构〗1.宿州学院资源与土木工程学院 ;2.宿州学院环境与测绘工程学院 ;3.安徽省煤矿勘探工程技术研究中心
〖摘 要〗通过测定沱河宿州城区段沉积物中总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)和总有机碳(TOC)的含量,分析其分布特征,运用C/N和N/P比值法研究其可能来源,采用有机指数和折算后有机氮评价沱河沉积物污染状况。结果表明:沱河城区段沉积物中TN、TP和TOC平均质量比分别为1 343 mg/kg、608 mg/kg和30 201 mg/kg;C/N和N/P比值表明河流底泥沉积物中C、N和P污染可能是外源输入,且受煤炭工业发展影响较大;有机氮达到Ⅲ级,属于尚清洁程度,有机指数达到Ⅳ级,属于有机污染范畴,5号采样点需引起有关部门注意。
〖关键词〗总氮;总磷;总有机碳;沉积物;沱河宿州城区段
Abstract〗In the paper, the contents of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment from Tuohe River in Suzhou were determined. Based on analyzing the spatial distribution characteristics, it was revealed the possible sources of three kinds of pollutants by C/N and N/P ratios and evaluated the pollution level by converted organic nitrogen and organic matter index. The results showed that the average contents of TN, TP and TOC in sediment were 1 343 mg/kg, 608 mg/kg and 30 201 mg/kg, respectively. The C/N and N/P ratios revealed that C, N and P pollutants in sediment might come from exogenous inputs which were greatly affected by the development of coal industry. The organic nitrogen from urban river sediment in Suzhou City reached to the third degree, which still belonged to clean level. The organic index indicated that the organic pollution in sediment from the urban section of Tuohe River in Suzhou City reached to the Ⅳ level, which belonged to organic pollution. In general, the analysis data from No.5 sampling site should be paid close attention by related departments.
Key words〗Total nitrogen; Total phosphorus; Total organic carbon; Sediment; Urban section of Tuohe River in Suzhou City
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41373095);宿州学院大学生创新创业计划基金资助项目(201510379076);宿州区域发展协同创新中心基金资助项目(2015SZXTZXKF01);宿州学院科研平台开放课题基金资助项目(2014YKF06)。

〖篇 名〗基于Landsat 8遥感影像的邵武至光泽高速公路生态环境质量评价研究
〖作 者〗姚爱冬1,管文科2*,冯益明3
〖机 构〗1.交通运输部环境保护中心 ;2.新疆林业科学院造林治沙所 ;3.中国林业科学研究院荒漠化研究所
〖摘 要〗以邵武—光泽高速公路施工后期(2015年5月)的Landsat 8遥感影像及DEM为主要数据源,提取植被、土壤和地形等相关因子,依据各因子对生态环境质量的贡献程度构建评价模型,并用该模型对高速公路红线两侧5 km范围内的区域生态环境质量进行影响评价。结果表明:该工程区内生态环境质量影响评价优、良的面积约占区域总面积的91%,其生态系统结构及功能较完善,该工程对生态系统影响较小。
〖关键词〗生态系统;环境质量评价;遥感;邵武—光泽高速公路
Abstract〗Taking Landsat 8 remote sensing image and DEM in the construction period (May, 2015) of Shaowu—Guangze speedway as the main data source, factors relating to environmental impact were extracted such as vegetation, soil and topography according to the contribution to ecological environment quality. A model was built for assessing the environmental impact within 5 km on each side of the speedway. The study showed the assessment of ecological environmental impact was good in 91% of the total area. The structure and function of the ecosystem were perfect. The construction had less impact on the ecosystem.
Key words〗Ecological system; Environmental quality assessment; Remote sensing; Shaowu
〖基金〗林业行业公益重点课题“戈壁生态系统长期定位观测研究”基金资助项目(201404304)

〖篇 名〗粤北上坝村稻田土壤及间隙水中重金属污染研究
〖作 者〗张艳林1,邹志辉2*,王梅2,甄慧文2,王智美2,陈炳辉3
〖机 构〗1.广东环境保护工程职业学院环境监测系 2.广东药科大学公共卫生学院 ;3.中山大学地球科学系
〖摘 要〗利用Tessier连续提取法对粤北上坝村稻田土壤中重金属化学形态分布特征进行研究,同时调查稻田间隙水中重金属的污染状况。结果表明,研究区域稻田土壤中Cu超标严重,主要以稳定态的形式存在,环境迁移量相对较少;土壤中Zn的生物有效性最低,Cd污染达到中等水平,其生物有效性最高;可交换态Mn,碳酸盐结合态Cd及铁锰氧化物结合态的Mn、Pb、Zn的占比较高,对农业生产环境具有一定的潜在威胁。稻田间隙水中Cd含量超标1.8倍。
〖关键词〗重金属;化学形态;稻田土壤;间隙水;粤北上坝村
Abstract〗In this paper, heavy metal pollution situation in the porewater was studied by Tessier method for exploring the species distribution of heavy metals in paddy soil from Shangba village in northern Guangdong. The results indicated that the concentration of Cu was much higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality and it presented mainly in stable species, as well as the environmental migration was relatively low. The bioavailability of Zn in paddy soil was the lowest. Cd reached to moderate pollution level and its bioavailability was the highest. The percentage of water soluble form of Mn, carbonatebound form of Cd and FeMnoxidebound form of Mn, Pb, Zn were high, which were a potential threat to agricultural production environment. The concentration of Cd in porewater was 1.8 times over the standard limit  of irrigation water quality. 
Key words〗Heavy metal; Speciation distribution; Paddy soil; Porewater; Shangba village in northern Guangdong
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41373079);2015年广东省高等学校优秀青年教师培养计划基金资助项目(YQ2015203);2016年度广东环境保护工程职业学院人才基金资助项目(K660116011812);2013年广东环境保护工程职业学院院长科研基金资助项目(KY201302007)

〖篇 名〗三维荧光光谱法测定市政污水中有机污染物
〖作 者〗易莹1,周艳伟1,Bridgeman J  2, 孔伟1,杨昌达1,毛海荣1,王知兵1
〖机 构〗1.中国电器科学研究院有限公司;2.伯明翰大学工程与物理科学学院
〖摘 要〗采用三维荧光光谱法和传统水质分析法分别测定广州某城市污水厂污水处理过程中不同节点的污水水质,并分析荧光特性与传统分析方法获得的数据之间的关系。结果表明,随着污水水质情况的改善,污水样本的特征峰荧光强度呈现出明显的下降趋势,且污水荧光强度与COD、BOD5值存在较好的相关性,可通过直接分析污水的荧光特性来判断污水的有机污染情况;相较于过滤处理的污水样本,未过滤水样的特征峰荧光强度与污水COD、BOD5值之间具有更强的线性关系。
〖关键词〗化学需氧量;五日生化需氧量;三维荧光光谱法;污水
Abstract〗Threedimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and traditional water quality analysis methods were used to determine wastewater samples at different sites of WWTP in Guangzhou, in order to obtain the relationships between fluorescence characteristics and concentrations of the samples. The pollution could be estimated by analyzing the fluorescence spectra of wastewater, for understanding how the fluorescence intensity changes with the wastewater quality. The relationships between fluorescence intensity, BOD5 and COD of unfiltered samples had stronger correlation than that in filtered samples.
Key words〗COD; BOD5; Threedimensional fluorescence spectroscopy; Municipal sewage
〖基金〗广东省科技计划基金资助项目(2017A050501057);广州市科技计划基金资助项目(201508030028)

〖篇 名〗VOCs在线监测系统与SUMMA罐采样-气质联用法的比对分析
〖作 者〗吕志勇,梁胜文,白石,黄振
〖机 构〗武汉市环境监测中心
〖摘 要〗将挥发性有机污染物在线监测系统与实验室内SUMMA罐采样气质联用法(GC-MS)的挥发性有机物分析进行了标准气体和实际空气样品的分析比对,并对偏差原因作分析,提出在线监测系统的维护建议。结果表明, 挥发性有机物在线监测系统的监测结果与实验室方法有一定的可比性,可用于大气中挥发性有机污染物的在线监测。
〖关键词〗SUMMA 罐采样;气质联用法;VOCs在线监测系统
Abstract〗The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in standard gas and actual air samples were analyzed by using online VOCs monitoring system and SUMMA canister samplingGCMS. The two methods were compared. The causes of deviation were analyzed. Suggestions on operation and maintenance of online VOCs monitoring system also were proposed. The results showed that online VOCs monitoring system and the laboratory analysis method were comparable. Online VOCs monitoring system could be applied in determining VOCs in the atmosphere.
Key words〗SUMMA canister sampling; GCMS; Online VOCs monitoring system
〖基金〗国家重大仪器研发专项“大气及水体挥发性有机物在线监测设备开发及应用示范”课题基金资助项目(2012YQ060027)

〖篇 名〗顶空气相色谱法测定漓江底泥中的三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯
〖作 者〗李常丽,唐丽嵘,彭靖恺,张志朋*,邹志勇
〖机 构〗桂林市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗采用NaCl溶液提取,顶空气相色谱法测定底泥中的三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯,方法在0.098 ng/L~1.03 ng/L范围内线性良好,三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯的方法检出限分别为0.013 ng/g和0.016 ng/g。对空白样品做3个质量比水平的加标回收试验,7次测定结果的RSD为2.0%~3.8%,平均加标回收率为94.0%~109%。将该方法用于桂林市漓江底泥样品的测定,结果三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯均为未检出,实际样品加标回收率为92.0%~107%。
〖关键词〗三氯乙烯;四氯乙烯;顶空气相色谱法;底泥
Abstract〗Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in sediment were extracted by 10% NaCl solution, and determined  by headspace gas chromatography. Results showed that good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 0.098 ng/L~1.03 ng/L. The MDL of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were 0.013 ng/kg and 0.016 ng/kg, respectively.7 times of spiked blank tests were carried out in 3 concentration level, the RSDs of 7 tests ranged from 2.0%~3.8%, the average  recoveries were in the range of 94.0%~109%. The test results of sediment samples from Li River in Guilin showed that trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were not detected, the recoveries of spiked sample  were in the range of 92%~107%.
Key words〗Trichloroethylene; Tetrachloroethylene; Headspace gas chromatography; Sediment
〖基金〗桂林市环境监测中心站科研孵化基金资助项目(FH201502)

〖篇 名〗β射线吸收法双通道PM2.5/PM10监测装置性能探究
〖作 者〗高玉梅1,孟国鑫2,楼晟荣3,苏明旭1,陈军1*
〖机 构〗1.上海理工大学能源与动力工程学院,上海市多相流及传热传质重点实验室;2.赛默飞世尔(上海)仪器有限公司 ;3.国家环境保护城市大气复合污染成因与防治重点实验室
〖摘 要〗根据中国环境保护产品认证标准(CCEP)的技术规范,结合美国环境保护署(EPA)关于环境空气监测参考指标和等效检测方法,对赛默飞世尔最新开发的双通道颗粒物自动监测装置的主要性能指标进行分析表征。用3台待测双通道5028i型和2台参照单通道5014i型颗粒物自动监测装置连续2个月自动监测大气颗粒物PM2.5和PM10,考察双通道颗粒物自动监测装置关于仪器精度、仪器准确度、流量稳定性和准确性等方面的性能。
〖关键词〗颗粒物;双通道;β射线吸收法;性能测试;大气
Abstract〗According to China Certification for Ecolabelling Products (CCEP) technical specification, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitoring reference index and equivalent detection method on ambient air, main performance indexes of dual channel particles automatic monitoring device newly developed by Thermo Fisher Scientific were analyzed and characterized. During two months of continuous automatic monitoring, results of atmospheric particulates PM2.5 and PM10,were researched using three candidate dual channel monitors (5028i) and two referenced single channel monitors (5014i). Some performance indexes of dual channel continuous ambient particulate monitor such as instrument precision, instrument accuracy, flow stability and flow accuracy were proposed.
Key words〗Particulate matter; Dual channel; βRay absorption method; Performance test; Atmosphere
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(91544225)

〖篇 名〗多因素综合作用对铜绿微囊藻生长的影响
〖作 者〗张芹1,李强2,南红岩3*
〖机 构〗1.重庆市生态环境监测中心 ; 2.重庆环科院博达环保科技有限公司 ;3.重庆大学
〖摘 要〗选取铜绿微囊藻为研究对象,通过正交试验考察了氮磷等营养盐、Ca2+、照度、温度等环境因素对其生长及群体形成的影响;通过对荧光倒置显微镜、扫描电镜、激光共聚焦显微镜下群体微囊藻形态的观察,从微观角度解释群体形成的生物学原因。正交试验表明,铜绿微囊藻群体形成受初始氮磷钙质量浓度、温度、光照等多种环境因素综合影响,最佳组合为氮磷钙初始质量浓度100 mg/L、5 mg/L、260 mg/L,温度25 ℃,照度4 000 lx,在该条件下铜绿微囊藻细胞密度最大,胞外多糖(EPS)质量浓度最高。形态观察试验表明,在微囊藻群体形成过程中会产生细胞间隙,且EPS和Ca2+在细胞聚集过程中发挥着重要作用。
〖关键词〗铜绿微囊藻;水华;环境因素;胞外多糖;架桥作用
Abstract〗M. Aeruginosa was selected as the research object in the orthogonal experiments for investigating the impact of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and Ca2+, light intensity, temperature and environmental factors on its growth and group formation. The form of M. Aeruginosa was observed by inverted fluorescent microscope, scanning electron microscope and laser confocal microscope respectively, which was used to explain the biologic reasons for its group formation from the micro perspective. Results from the orthogonal experiments showed that the group formation was affected by multiple factors like the initial concentration of N, P and Ca2+, light intensity, temperature and environmental factors, etc. In best combination, the initial concentration of N, P, Ca2+ were 100 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 260 mg/L, respectively, with the temperature 25 ℃ and light intensity 4 000 lx. On this condition, the algal cell density and EPS mass concentration reached to their maximum. Results from the morphology observation showed that microcystin algae cells could form intercellular space during their growing process, where EPS and Ca2+ played an important role.
Key words〗M. Aeruginosa; Bloom; Environmental factors; EPS; Bridging role
〖基金〗中央高校基金资助项目(CDJZR14215501)

〖篇 名〗涪陵页岩气田一期工程环境影响调查
〖作 者〗张思兰1,2,何敏1,2,张春1,2,梅绪东1,2,王丹1,2
〖机 构〗1.重庆市涪陵页岩气环保研发与技术服务中心 ;2.重庆市页岩气开发环境保护工程技术研究中心
〖摘 要〗采用现场调研与实地监测相结合的方法对涪陵页岩气田一期工程污染源和区域环境质量现状进行深入调查研究,剖析涪陵页岩气开发对环境产生的影响。结果表明,涪陵页岩气田开发过程中废水实行循环利用,钻屑固体废物固化填埋,企业环保措施基本落实,短期内页岩气开发未对区域环境产生明显不良影响。指出修建井场、池体、道路等设施对生态环境具有一定影响,且随着时间推移,钻屑固化填埋对周围土壤及水环境也具有潜在影响。
〖关键词〗页岩气;页岩气田;污染源;环境影响;涪陵
Abstract〗In order to dissect the environmental impact of shale gas development, this paper investigated the pollution sources and regional environmental quality situations of firststage project in Fuling shale gas field by site surveying and field monitoring methods. The results showed that the waste water was circularly utilized, the drilling cuttings were solidified and buried, and the environmental protection measures of enterprise also gradually came to be complete in the process of shale gas development. So there was no evident impact on regional environment of shale gas development in the short term. Nonetheless, in the process of shale gas development the construction of well sites, pools, roads and other engineering facilities had certain influence on the ecological environment, and the cuttings landfill also had a potential impact on the surrounding soil and water environment as time went by.
Key words〗Shale gas; Shale gas field; Pollution sources; Environmental impact; Fuling
〖基金〗涪陵区科技计划基金资助项目(FLKJ,2016ABC1070)

〖篇 名〗基于车载监测法的Ⅱ型大城市射频公众曝露探讨
〖作 者〗武攀峰1,王国旗2,陆炜1,姚颖1,黄昕2
〖机 构〗1.南通市环境监测中心站 ;2.江苏省核安全局
〖摘 要〗以南通市为例,采用车载监测法现场实测城区射频辐射公众曝露,按照0.5 km×0.5 km网格尺度展现其分布特征,并分析地区差异及其影响因素。结果表明,南通城区电磁环境公众曝露电场场量为(0.58±0.28)V/m,处于安全水平;城区公众曝露分布呈现北高南低,中心高外围低的特点,随着网格密度增大,高场强值网格数增加;主城区公众曝露电场场量为(0.84±0.47)V/m,移动通信基站是主要污染源之一。高压输变电线路对方法测试结果影响较大,需进行测试路径优化和异常数据的处理。
〖关键词〗公众曝露;射频电磁辐射;Ⅱ型大城市;车载监测法
Abstract〗Taking Nantong city as an example, the public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in the urban area was determined insitu by vehicle monitoring method. According to a grid scale of 0.5 km×0.5 km, the distribution characteristics, the regional differences and the influence factors were analyzed. The result showed the field intensity of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic in the urban area is(0.58±0.28)V/m, which was still at safety level. The distribution of urban public exposure tended to be higher in the north while lower in the south, higher in the centre while lower in the outskirt. High field intensity grid increased with the increase of grid density. The field intensity in main urban area was(0.84±0.47)V/m. The communication base station is one of the main pollution sources. High tension cables affected the test results obviously. Therefore, the test path optimization and abnormal data processing should be necessary.
Key words〗 Public exposure; Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation; TypeⅡ big city; Vehicle monitoring
〖基金〗江苏省环保科研基金资助项目(2014030);南通市科技计划基金资助项目(HS2014022);南通市第四期“二二六工程”基金资助项目(2013007)
 
〖篇 名〗高分辨率遥感影像在土壤环境质量监测点位布设中的应用
〖作 者〗蒋明,文建辉,黄晓蓉
〖机 构〗桂林市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗在土壤环境质量监测点位布设工作中,利用高分辨率遥感影像等数据和资料,可以增强点位布设结果的规范性和合理性。基于环境保护部和中国环境监测总站下发的土壤环境质量监测点位布设技术方案,分别介绍了基础点位、风险点位和背景点位的总体布设方式和布设要求,以及高分辨率遥感影像在各类点位理论布设中的具体应用方法。
〖关键词〗点位布设;高分辨率遥感影像;土壤环境质量监测
Abstract〗The standardization and rationalization of spot setting in soil environmental quality monitoring would be promoted by utilizing the data and information from high resolution remote sensing images. In this paper, based on the technological method of spot setting for soil environmental quality monitoring from Ministry of Environmental Protection and China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, the spot setting methods for basic spots, risky spots and background spots were introduced, and high resolution remote sensing images were applied in spot setting theoretically for all kinds of the spots.
Key words〗Spot setting; High resolution remote sensing images; Soil environmental quality monitoring
〖基金〗广西壮族自治区科技计划基金资助项目(桂科AB16380303)

〖篇 名〗佛山市禅城区天然气公交车排气污染分析
〖作 者〗赵慧洁
〖机 构〗佛山市禅城区环境监测站
〖摘 要〗以2015年佛山市禅城区的公交车为研究对象,利用COPERT Ⅳ模型计算本地化的排放因子,分析该区公交车污染排放现状,以及天然气公交车相对于柴油公交车的减排效果。结果表明,禅城区公交车污染物年排放量分别为CO 180.73 t、VOCs 176.92 t、NOx 672.87 t、PM2.5 14.17 t,用天然气公交车替代柴油公交车,NOx和PM2.5分别减排53.39%和79.11%。通过遥感监测数据进一步分析禅城区天然气公交车的排气污染特点,表明其CO排放基本处于稳态,NOx排放波动较大,并据此提出了相应的污染控制措施。
〖关键词〗天然气公交车;排气污染;COPERT Ⅳ模型;遥感监测;佛山市禅城区
Abstract〗Taking the buses in Chancheng district, Foshan City during 2015 as the research objects, the local emission factors of buses were calculated using the modified COPERT Ⅳ model, and the present situation of pollution emission was analyzed. Moreover, the reduction emission of natural gas (CNG) buses compared with diesel buses in Chancheng district during 2015 were analyzed emphatically. The results showed that the bus emissions of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 were 180.73 t, 176.92 t, 672.87 t and 14.17 t in Chancheng district in 2015 respectively. With natural gas buses instead of diesel buses, NOx and PM2.5 emissions were reduced by 53.39% and 79.11% respectively. To further analyze the actual exhaust pollution characteristics of the natural gas buses in Chancheng area, the remote sensing monitoring data were utilized, which showed that the CO emission was basically steady and the NOx emission fluctuated greatly, and the corresponding pollution control measures were put forward accordingly.
Key words〗Natural gas bus; Exhaust pollution; COPERT Ⅳ model; Remote sensing monitoring; Chancheng district in Foshan City