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2018年第1期目次及主要文章中英文摘要
责任编辑:  文章来源:  发布时间:2018-02-07 14:43  阅读次数:此处显示稿件总访问量

 
2018年第1期目次
太湖流域水生态监控系统平台构建研究.............................................牛志春, 蔡琨 张宏,等(1)
化学药品原料药制造业自行监测技术指南设计研究.....................................闻欣,张迪生,王军霞(4)
汽车及零部件行业VOCs污染现状及减排对策分析.....................................张晖,程晋俊,叶巡,等(8)
我国农田农药流失现状及减控策略..............................................王庆海,李翠,郑瑞伦,等(11)
基于MODIS数据产品的桂林市气溶胶时空分布及变化特征分析...........................韦海宁,梁保平,钟山(16)
基于人工蜂群算法的BP双隐含层神经网络水质模型..................................杨咪,徐盼盼,钱会,等(21)
基于GIS技术和线性结构模型的漓江流域水污染状况分析.............................文建辉,李建,许睿,等(27)
夏收和秋收期间泰州市空气质量特征研究............................................吴莹,程滢,陈军,等(31)
宁夏彭阳水质监测断面的水质评价及预测.........................................李亚斌,王海科,钱会,等(36)
万峰湖水体浮游植物调查及富营养化评价......................................杨文丽,夏品华,李惠男,等(41)
天水市紫外吸收性气溶胶时空动态的遥感监测....................................王爽,巨天珍,谢顺涛,等(46)
几种污水处理厂氨气排放因子测试方法比较........................................梁云平,林安国,邬晓东(50)
超高效液相色谱/串联质谱法测定饮用水源水中多种藻毒素.............................赵彬,王昭,张敏,等(54)
我国人群对标准气味物质的愉悦度测评特征....................................李伟芳,李佳音,翟增秀,等(58)
不同暴露时间下Zn 2+和Cd2+对萼花臂尾轮虫种群增长的毒性影响..................徐晓平,席贻龙,费珉,等(61)
假丝酵母菌对高浓度苯酚的降解效果及SDS对其生长影响..............................丁杰,郝艳,孟繁华,等(65)
广东省部分饮用水源地水中总α和总β放射性水平...............................黄文暖,聂一凡,杨启泽,等(68)
 
主要文章中英文摘要
〖篇 名〗太湖流域水生态监控系统平台构建研究
〖作 者〗牛志春1,蔡琨1,张宏2,侍昊1,丁铭1
〖机 构〗1.江苏省环境监测中心,2.南京师范大学地理科学学院
〖摘 要〗从太湖流域水生态监控管理需求出发,研究太湖流域水生态监控系统平台建设目标及建设内容,包括水生态监控数据管理子系统构建、水生态状况评价子系统构建、水生态模拟子系统构建和水生态辅助管理决策子系统构建。集成管理太湖流域水质监测数据、水生生物监测数据、基础地理信息数据,对各类数据进行一体化管理及深度挖掘,自动实现水生态状况评价;构建水生态模拟子系统,对水生态情景、污染物扩散、水生态功能区空间分布及变化趋势进行模拟,并提出水生态辅助决策方案及报告。
〖关键词〗水生态;监控系统;太湖流域
Abstract〗Based on water ecological monitoring and management demands in Taihu basin, the objective and content of Water Ecological Monitoring System Platform were investigated, which included data management subsystem, evaluation subsystem, simulation subsystem and decision support subsystem. The water quality and aquatic biological monitoring data, together with geographic information data of Taihu basin were integrated managed for automatically analyzing and evaluating the water ecological quality. The simulation subsystem was applied to simulate the water ecological situation, pollutant diffusion, spatial distribution and variation trend of water ecological function area. Finally the water ecological assistance decision project and report were provided.
Key words〗Water ecosystem; Monitoring system; Taihu basin
〖基金〗国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项基金资助项目(2012ZX07506-003)

〖篇 名〗化学药品原料药制造业自行监测技术指南设计研究
〖作 者〗闻欣1,张迪生1,王军霞2
〖机 构〗1.南京市环境监测中心站,2.中国环境监测总站
〖摘 要〗通过分析化学药品原料药制造业的基本情况、产品种类和生产工艺,以及自行监测技术指南编制的目的和基本要求,梳理出确定监测点位和对应多项污染物排放标准为目前该行业自行监测技术指南编制工作的难点。根据以上分析,提出将指南按工艺类型拆分、监测点位和废气监测指标的确定、监测频次的优化、生产记录内容的设定列为指南编制工作的重点。
〖关键词〗化学药品原料药制造业;工艺类型;自行监测
Abstract〗Through the analysis on basic characteristic, product category, production process, and the objective and requirements of selfmonitoring technology guidelines design for chemical medicine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing industry, monitoring site setting and emission standards of pollutants were sought out as the difficulties in the guidelines design. According to those analysis above, it pointed out the guidelines should be classified by production types. The determination of monitoring site, monitoring factors and frequency, production records were listed as the key points to the guidelines compilation.
Key words〗Chemical medicine active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing industry; Production type; Selfmonitoring
〖基金〗中国环境监测总站“编制排污单位自行监测指南(化学药品原料药制造行业)”基金资助项目(JCZN-2015-06);南京市环境保护局课题“南京市医药工业企业污染排放现状调查及防治对策”基金资助项目(201608)

〖篇 名〗汽车及零部件行业VOCs污染现状及减排对策分析
〖作 者〗张晖,程晋俊,叶巡,刘琼玉*
〖机 构〗工业烟尘污染控制湖北省重点实验室,江汉大学
〖摘 要〗分析了汽车及零部件行业VOCs的主要来源和危害,阐述了我国现阶段汽车及零部件行业VOCs的污染现状。建议采取以源头削减和过程控制为重点、兼顾末端治理的全过程综合防治措施,控制汽车及零部件行业的VOCs排放。
〖关键词〗挥发性有机物;汽车及零部件;污染现状;减排对策
Abstract〗In this paper, the main sources and hazards of VOCs in automobile and auto parts industry were analyzed, and VOCs pollution status was elaborated. It suggested that VOCs emission control should be focused on source reduction and process control, both the overall process comprehensive preventive measures with end treatment.
Key words〗VOCs; Automobile and auto parts; Pollution status; Reduction countermeasures
〖基金〗湖北省教育厅科学技术研究计划基金资助项目(B2014074);武汉研究院开放性课题基金资助项目(IWHS2016332)

〖篇 名〗我国农田农药流失现状及减控策略
〖作 者〗王庆海1,李翠1,郑瑞伦1,却晓娥2*
〖机 构〗1.北京市农林科学院北京草业与环境研究发展中心,2.中国林业科学研究院荒漠化研究所
〖摘 要〗农业面源污染已经成为全球水污染的主要来源,其中具有生物毒性的农药污染物对人体健康和生态环境安全构成了严重威胁。分析了我国农田农药流失现状,指出流失的主要农药品种与用药历史和特点密切相关,水体中检出的有机氯农药主要源于早期农药残留,检出的有机磷农药和长残效除草剂部分种类目前仍在使用。提出从影响农药流失的各个环节入手,制定严密的减控策略。植物缓冲带是拦截农药流失的常用措施,可以实现对农业面源污染的可持续治理。建议实行生态功能区划,严格限制高毒农药的施用,减少化学农药施用量,规范农药喷洒器械和施药技术,从源头上控制农药流失,从而降低农业非点源污染带来的危险。
〖关键词〗农业面源污染;农药流失;减控策略;源头控制
Abstract〗Agricultural nonpoint pollution (ANP) has become a major source of water pollution in the world. Biotoxic pesticides in water bodies pose a significant threat to human health and aquatic ecosystem. This review analyzed the status of pesticide loss in China. The major varieties of pesticide loss were closely related to past application and the characteristics of pesticides. At present, organochlorine pesticides detected in water bodies were mainly derived from past residues. Some organophosphorous pesticides and long residual herbicides were still used in agriculture. It proposed to make rigorous reduction and control strategies over all causes of pesticide loss. Vegetative buffer strip, a common approach in reducing pesticide loss could be a sustainable control in ANP. Some strategies should be taken to reduce risk of ANP by source control, such as implementing ecological function zoning, limiting hightoxic pesticide usage, lowering chemical pesticide application amount, improving pesticide spraying equipment and technique.
Key words〗Agricultural nonpoint pollution; Pesticide loss; Mitigation strategies; Source control
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(31370540);北京市农林科学院科技创新能力建设专项基金资助项目(KJCX20161502-1)

〖篇 名〗基于MODIS数据产品的桂林市气溶胶时空分布及变化特征分析
〖作 者〗韦海宁1,2,梁保平1*,钟山1
〖机 构〗1.广西师范大学环境与资源学院 2.中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院
〖摘 要〗利用MODIS 3 km AOD原始数据,借助ENVI、ArcGIS等软件对桂林市AOD进行提取和插值,模拟该市AOD的空间分布特征,综合分析区域地形、NDVI与AOD分布的相关关系。结果表明:桂林市AOD空间分布受到地形的影响,AOD高值区出现在近乎封闭的桂林中部盆地和其他区域的谷地,地势高的区域AOD值较低;利用NCEP分析资料的风场数据,对比春节期间桂林市的AOD相对高值中心的变化,得出气溶胶的迁移和扩散方向与风向一致,静风时AOD相对高值中心更容易集中在中部盆地的城区。
〖关键词〗MODIS;气溶胶光学厚度;地形;归一化植被指数;桂林市
Abstract〗In this article, the spatial distribution of AOD in Guilin was simulated and the relationship between terrain, NDVI and AOD was analyzed based on MODIS C006 3 km AOD original data extracted and interpolated by ENVI, ArcGIS and other software. The results showed that the terrain in Gulin had deep effect on AOD spatial distribution. High AOD areas appeared in the closed middle basin of Guilin and other valleys. Low AOD area appeared in high terrain. According to the wind field data reanalyzed by NCEP, and the variation of the relative high AOD centre in the Spring Festival, it was concluded that the direction of aerosol migratory and diffusion was consistent with the wind direction, while in calm wind, the relative high AOD centre mainly occurred in the middle basin of the urban area.
Key words〗MODIS; AOD; Terrain; Normalized difference vegetation index; Guilin
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(No41361041);广西自然科学基金重点资助项目(2016GXNSFDA139031);广西自然科学基金资助项目(2014GXNSFAA118300)

〖篇 名〗基于人工蜂群算法的BP双隐含层神经网络水质模型
〖作 者〗杨咪1,2,徐盼盼1,2,钱会1,2*,侯凯1,2
〖机 构〗1.长安大学环境科学与工程学院 2.旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室
〖摘 要〗采用人工蜂群算法优化BP神经网络的初始权值和阈值,同时采用双隐含层来提高网络精度,选取DO、IMn、COD、BOD5和NH3-N作为评价指标,建立一个基于人工蜂群算法的BP双隐含层神经网络模型,并应用该模型对2012年黄河水系下河沿断面的各月监测数据进行水质评价,同时与BP神经网络、模糊层次评价方法作比较。结果表明:基于人工蜂群算法的BP双隐含层神经网络在水质评价时,均方误差小,多次运行的结果始终一致,评价结果合理有效。
〖关键词〗BP神经网络;双隐含层;人工蜂群算法;水质评价
Abstract〗This paper used artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize BP neural network weights and thresholds, the double hidden layer was also used to improve the precision of the network requirements, DO, IMn, COD, BOD5 and NH3-N were selected as the evaluation index, and then a water quality evaluation model was establish based on artificial bee colony algorithm and BP double hidden layer neural network. The established model was applied for the water quality evaluation in the Xiaheyan section of Yellow River in 2012. Meanwhile, the evaluation method was compared with the BP neural network and the Fuzzy hierarchy evaluation. The results showed that the water quality evaluation based on artificial bee colony algorithm and BP double hidden layer neural network got small mean square error, and the results of multiple runs kept in accordance with each other, the evaluation results were reasonable and effective.
Key words〗BP neural network; Double hidden layer; Artificial bee colony algorithm; Water quality assessment
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金“银川平原地下水对条件变化的响应机制及合理开发利用研究”资助项目(41172212)

〖篇 名〗基于GIS技术和线性结构模型的漓江流域水污染状况分析
〖作 者〗文建辉1,2, 李建3, 许睿3*, 银媛媛2
〖机 构〗1.桂林理工大学,2.桂林市环境监测中心站,3.桂林电子科技大学
〖摘 要〗通过在漓江流域布设4个采样点,采集2014年全年水质数据,并作主成分分析,选取生活污水因子、农业径流因子、工业污水因子为污染因子输入线性结构模型中进行关系分析。结果显示,生活污水因子、农业径流因子、工业污水因子与水质污染因数的关系分别为0.49、0.37、0.13,说明漓江流域水污染主要由生活污水引起,其次是农业污水。把漓江流域7个县区的人口密度、农业比例、工业比例分布归一化,代入水质因数,获得水质评价指数。采用GIS对漓江流域人口密度和企业密度的空间分布和聚类关系进行分析,发现漓江流域人口分布、企业分布与水质呈负相关关系。
〖关键词〗GIS技术; 结构方程模型;水污染; 漓江流域
Abstract〗By arranging 4 sampling sites in the Lijiang River Basin, the 2014 annual water quality data was collected for principal component analysis. Domestic sewage factor, agricultural runoff factor and industrial sewage factor were selected as pollution factors input to the linear structure model and their correlation was made. The results showed that the relationship between domestic sewage factor, agricultural runoff factor, industrial sewage factor and water quality pollution factors were 0.49,0.37,0.13, respectively, indicating that the water pollution in the Lijiang River Basin was mainly caused by domestic sewage, followed by the agricultural sewage. Put the population density, agricultural proportion, the proportion of industrial normalization of the 7 counties in the Lijing River Basin into water quality factor, the water quality evaluation index was obtained. Using GIS to analyze the spatial distribution and clustering relationship of population distribution and enterprise distribution in the Lijiang River Basin, there was a negative relationship between water quality and population distribution, enterprise distribution.
Key words〗GIS technology; Structural equation model; Water pollution; Lijiang River Basin
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41501342);广西自然科学基金资助项目(2014GXNSFAA118324);广西科技开发基金资助项目(2016AB12064);桂林市科技开发基金资助项目(20160216)

〖篇 名〗夏收和秋收期间泰州市空气质量特征研究
〖作 者〗吴莹,程滢,陈军,王磊
〖机 构〗泰州市环境监测中心站
〖摘 要〗利用2012—2015年泰州市空气质量监测数据,分析夏、秋收期间城市环境空气质量特征,探讨引发重污染天气的原因。结果表明,夏收期间空气质量整体优于秋收,2012年、2013年秋收期间空气质量最差,达到重污染以上的天数分别为10 d、6 d,颗粒物尤其是PM2.5超标较严重,2015年秋收期间空气质量显著好转。秸秆焚烧日PM2.5和PM10质量浓度呈较高相关性,PM2.5/PM10值比非秸秆焚烧日高。基于气团后向轨迹及秸秆焚烧卫星遥感监测火点图将污染事件分类,研究得出秸秆焚烧和区域输送是导致城市污染加重的主要因素。
〖关键词〗空气质量;PM10;PM2.5;秸秆焚烧;后向轨迹;泰州
Abstract〗The study analysed the characteristic of air quality in Taizhou during the period of the summer harvest and the autumn harvest based on air quality automatic monitoring data from 2012 to 2015, and the causes of air pollution was discussed. The results showed that the air quality was better in the summer harvest than that in the autumn harvest. The air quality in the autumn harvest of 2012 and 2013 were the worst, and heavy pollution days were 10 d and 6 d, respectively. The concentration of particulate matter, especially PM2.5, far exceeded the limit. Compared with the previous years, the air quality improved significantly during the autumn harvest in 2015. The concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 during the strawburing days were highly correlated, and the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was higher in nonstraw burning days. Air pollution incidents were classified based on air mass backward trajectory and straw burning point diagram by satellite remote sensing monitoring. Results showed that heavy air pollution in city was mainly caused by waste straw burning and pollutant regional transport.
Key words〗Air quality; PM10; PM2.5; Straw burning; Backward trajectory; Taizhou
〖基金〗泰州市科技支撑计划(社会发展)基金资助项目(TS201501);泰州市软科学研究基金资助项目(RM201418)

〖篇 名〗宁夏彭阳水质监测断面的水质评价及预测
〖作 者〗李亚斌1,2,3,王海科1,2,钱会1,2*,徐盼盼1,2,黄涛1,2
〖机 构〗1.长安大学环境科学与工程学院 2.长安大学旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室 3.沈阳环境科学研究院
〖摘 要〗基于2011—2015年茹河彭阳水质监测断面的水质数据,采用物元分析法对其断面水质进行评价;建立适用于该监测断面的马尔可夫预测模型对断面水质类别进行预测;同时依据平稳分布对各类水质的重现期作了分析。结果表明:彭阳水质监测断面水质为Ⅲ类;对马尔可夫链预测模型进行验证,满足预测精度;2015年9月和11月的水质类别预测结果均为Ⅲ类,且Ⅲ类水质出现的周期最短,属河流水质常态,其重现期为4.9个月,整体水质较好。
〖关键词〗水质评价和预测;物元分析;马尔可夫链;茹河彭阳断面
Abstract〗Based on the data of the Pengyang section in the Ruhe River from 2011 to 2015, the water quality was evaluated by using matterelement analysis model. Markov prediction model which was suitable for this section was build to forecast water quality, meanwhile the return period of all levels water quality were analyzed according to stationary distribution. The results indicated that the water quality in the Pengyang section was in level Ⅲ. The Markov chain prediction model was verified to meet the demand of prediction accuracy. The water quality in September and November of 2015 was predicted at level Ⅲ. This level Ⅲ water quality was normal and lasted for a short period. Its return period was 4.9 months, and the whole water quality was better.
Key words〗Water quality assessment and prediction; Matterelement analysis; Markov chain; Pengyang section in the Ruhe River
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金“银川平原地下水对条件变化的响应机制及合理开发利用研究”资助项目(41172212)

〖篇 名〗万峰湖水体浮游植物调查及富营养化评价
〖作 者〗杨文丽1,夏品华2,李惠男1,丁超1,葛皓1*
〖机 构〗1.贵州师范大学生命科学学院,2.贵州师范大学,贵州省山地环境信息系统与生态环境保护重点实验室
〖摘 要〗通过2016年枯水期和丰水期对万峰湖水库浮游植物及水质理化指标采样分析,并应用综合营养状态指数对其水质营养状态进行评价。结果表明,万峰湖枯水期主要以硅藻为主,丰水期以绿藻和甲藻占优势;水体水质处于中营养化状态。相关性分析表明,浮游植物丰度在枯水期与各理化指标相关性不显著,在丰水期与DO、TP呈正相关,与IMn、Chla呈显著正相关。典范对应分析(CCA)表明,TN、SD和pH值是影响该水域浮游植物分布格局的重要因子,且CCA排序图较好显示了浮游植物分布和环境因子之间的关系。
〖关键词〗浮游植物;富营养化;典范对应分析;万峰湖
Abstract〗The phytoplankton and physical and chemical index in Wanfeng Reservoir were investigated and analyzed in dry season and wet season in 2016, and comprehensive nutrition state index was used to evaluate the nutritional status of Wanfeng Reservoir. The results showed that the diatoms were the main species in dry season, while the green alga and the dinoflagellates were the main species in wet season. The water quality was mainly in mesotrophic state. Correlation analysis showed that the phytoplankton abundance had no significant correlation with the physical and chemical index in dry season, but in wet season, it had positive correlation with DO and TP, and significant positive correlation with IMn and Chla. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)showed that total nitrogen, transparency and pH were the important factors affecting the phytoplankton distribution pattern, the CCA ordination plots could well display the phytoplankton distribution and its relationship with the environmental factors.
Key words〗Phytoplankton; Eutrophication; Canonical correspondence analysis; Wanfeng Reservoir
〖基金〗贵州省水利厅科技基金资助项目(KT201405);贵阳市科技局社会发展与民生科技计划基金资助项目(筑科合同[2011103]63号)

〖篇 名〗天水市紫外吸收性气溶胶时空动态的遥感监测
〖作 者〗王爽1,巨天珍1*,谢顺涛1,王菁1,卢秀娟1,赵欣鑫1,李兵1,张斌才2
〖机 构〗1.西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,2.甘肃省基础地理信息中心
〖摘 要〗采用OMI 传感器的气溶胶产品,分析了2006—2015年中国西部城市天水市对流层紫外吸收性气溶胶的时空分布特征。结果表明:空间上,十年间天水市的吸收性气溶胶表现出从中部向周围依次减弱的南北向带状分布规律;季节变化呈现出秋冬季高于春夏季的规律;时间上,吸收性气溶胶指数(AI)从2006年的0.075增至2015年的0.506,年均值为 0.28,年均增长率为57.5%;十年间出现2次阶段性增长和2次阶段性减小;AI年际变化与天水市地方总产值相关性为 0.902,第一产业对其影响最大,第三产业影响最小。
〖关键词〗紫外吸收性气溶胶指数;臭氧检测仪;时空分布;遥感监测;天水市
Abstract〗The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the tropospheric UVabsorbing aerosols in Tianshui, western China from 2006 to 2015 were analyzed based on the remote sensing data from OMI satellite sensor. The results showed that the spatial distribution of absorbing aerosols in Tianshui tended to decrease from the centre to around, with a northsouth zonal distribution. The seasonal variation showed the level in autumn and winter were higher than that in spring and summer. The aerosol index increased from 0.075 in 2006 to 0.506 in 2015, with an annual average of 0.28 and an average annual growth rate of 57.5%. There were two stages increase and two stages decrease during 10 years. The correlation coefficient between the local GDP and the aerosol index was 0.902. The primary industry had the most impact, while the tertiary industry had the minimum.
Key words〗UVabsorbing aerosol index; OMI; Spatiotemporal distribution; Remote sensing monitoring; Tianshui
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41161080);国家重点研发计划基金资助项目(2016YFC0500907);甘肃省重点研发计划基金资助项目(17YF1FA120)

〖篇 名〗几种污水处理厂氨气排放因子测试方法比较
〖作 者〗梁云平,林安国,邬晓东
〖机 构〗北京市环境保护监测中心,大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室
〖摘 要〗选用4种方法测试污水处理厂的沉砂池、初沉池、曝气池、二沉池工艺段的氨气浓度、污水指标和氨气排放因子,结果表明:氨气排放浓度与污水中氨氮浓度及总氮浓度有较好的线性关系,氨气很大程度上来自水中氨氮或总氮的转化;其中挥发速率模型法现场实测获得的氨气排放因子最高,为0.919 g/m3。
〖关键词〗氨气;排放浓度;排放因子;污水处理厂
Abstract〗Four test methods were chosen for determining ammonia concentration, sewage index and ammonia emission factors from grit chamber, primary settling tank, aeration tank and secondary settling tank of the sewage treatment plant. The results showed that the ammonia emission had good linear relationship with the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen in the wastewater. Most ammonia was transformed from ammonia nitrogen or total nitrogen in the tap water. The ammonia emission factor obtained from ammonia volatilization rate model was 0.919 g/m3, which  was the highest among the four methods.
Key words〗Ammonia; Emission concentration; Emission factor; Sewage treatment plant
〖基金〗国家科技支撑计划基金资助项目(2013BAC17B01);环境保护公益性行业科研专项基金资助项目(20140914);北京市科技计划基金资助项目(Z131100001113029)

〖篇 名〗超高效液相色谱/串联质谱法测定饮用水源水中多种藻毒素
〖作 者〗赵彬1,王昭2,张敏1*,张付海1,丁磊2,田丙正1,朱超1,胡雅琴1,王鑫1
〖机 构〗1.安徽省环境监测中心站,2.安徽省出入境检验检疫局技术中心
〖摘 要〗饮用水源水样品经过直接进样或固相微萃取法净化后,用超高效液相色谱/串联质谱测定水中11种藻毒素。通过试验优化测定条件,使该方法在0.500 μg/L~50.0 μg/L范围内线性良好,检出限为0.01 μg/L~0.05 μg/L。对同一实际环境样品做3个质量浓度水平加标回收试验,6次测定结果的RSD为2.2%~9.3%,回收率为76.1%~108%。将该方法用于测定环巢湖湖面12个监测断面水样,结果3组样品中MCYR、MCLR和MCRR值为0.3 μg/L~0.8 μg/L。
〖关键词〗藻毒素;超高效液相色谱/串联质谱法;饮用水源水
Abstract〗The samples from the drinking water source were directly injected or  pretreated by solidphase microextraction, 11 kinds of algal toxins were determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimized detection conditions, the linear range was 0.500 μg/L~50.0 μg/L and the detection limits were 0.01 μg/L~0.05 μg/L. Three concentration levels of spiked recovery tests were carried out on the same practical sample, the RSD of 6 duplicate measurements were 2.2%~9.3% and the recoveries ranged from 76.1% to 108%. This method was applied for monitoring 12 sections in Chaohu lake, the results showed MCYR、MCLR and MCRR were 0.3 μg/L~0.8 μg/L.
Key words〗Algal toxins; Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; Drinking water source
〖基金〗环境保护部“巢湖水华过程中微囊藻毒素与典型浮游植物的动态变化及其相互关系的研究”基金资助项目(20161001);安徽省地方标准基金资助项目(2017D0301)

〖篇 名〗我国人群对标准气味物质的愉悦度测评特征
〖作 者〗李伟芳1,李佳音1,2,翟增秀1,2,邹克华1*
〖机 构〗1.天津市环境保护科学研究院,国家环境保护恶臭污染控制重点实验室,2.天津迪兰奥特环保科技开发有限公司
〖摘 要〗组织73名嗅辨员,采用9级度量法,评价香草醛(5 g/L)和愈创木酚(体积分数为0.000 5%)的愉悦度,分析我国人群愉悦度分布特征,提出愉悦度测评条件。结果表明,香草醛的愉悦度评价总体平均值为1.26,愈创木酚的愉悦度评价总体平均值为-1.18。男性嗅辨员香草醛的愉悦度均值为1.42,女性嗅辨员为1.05。提出为尽可能抵消个体之间存在的主观差异,愉悦度测试小组人员数量应该在15人以上,且男女成员比例应该相当。
〖关键词〗异味;愉悦度;测试小组;评价标准
Abstract〗The hedonic tone of vanillin and guaiacol were evaluated by 73 qualified panelists according to the 9point hedonic scale measurement method, in order to understand the assessment characteristics of the hedonic tone of Chinese population and put forward the test requirements of hedonic tone evaluation. The results show the mean hedonic tone of vanillin was 1.26, while guaiacol was -1.18. The mean hedonic tone of vanillin for male assessors was 1.42, and for female assessors, was 1.05. At least 15 persons were requested for composing the panelist to offset the subjective differences between individuals, and the ratio of male to female assessors should be proportionable.
Key words〗Odor; Hedonic tone; Evaluation panel; Evaluation criteria
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(21577096);国家重点研发计划基金资助项目(2016YFC0700603-003)

〖篇 名〗不同暴露时间下Zn2+和Cd2+对萼花臂尾轮虫种群增长的毒性影响
〖作 者〗徐晓平1,席贻龙2,费珉3,李济源1,孙俊伟1
〖机 构〗1.安徽工程大学建筑工程学院,2.安徽师范大学生命科学学院 3.赤壁创业水务有限公司
〖摘 要〗采用群体累积培养方法,考察不同亚致死浓度水平的Zn2+、Cd2+和Zn2+-Cd2+在不同暴露时间下对萼花臂尾轮虫3 d种群增长率的影响。结果表明,随着暴露时间的延长,各处理组对轮虫种群增长的抑制作用在增加。Zn2+-Cd2+在中、低浓度处理组及短的暴露时间条件下表现为拮抗效应,而在高浓度处理组中表现为协同效应,且随着暴露时间的增加,协同作用效应在增加。
〖关键词〗Zn2+;Cd2+;联合毒性;暴露时间;萼花臂尾轮虫;种群增长率
Abstract〗The toxic effects of Zn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+Cd2+ on the population growth rate of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated under different exposure time using the 3 d population cumulative culture method. The results showed that the inhibition of population growth of the rotifers increased with the extension of the exposure time. The toxic effect of Zn2+Cd2+was antagonism under medium and low concentrations and shorter exposure time. However, the combined effect was synergistic under high concentrations, and increased with the extension of the exposure time.
Key words〗Zn2+; Cd2+; Combined toxicity; Exposure time; Brachionus calyciflorus; Population growth rate
〖基金〗安徽省高等学校自然科学研究重点基金资助项目(KJ2016A063);安徽工程大学青年基金资助项目(2015YQ01);安徽省教育厅提升计划一般基金资助项目(TSKJ2015B08)

〖篇 名〗假丝酵母菌对高浓度苯酚的降解效果及SDS对其生长影响
〖作 者〗丁杰1,2,郝艳1,孟繁华1,郇环1,李瑞1,刘东明1,李鸣晓1*
〖机 构〗1.中国环境科学研究院,2.上海大学环境与化学工程学院
〖摘 要〗从含酚废水处理池污泥中驯化得到苯酚降解菌——假丝酵母菌FD-1,通过试验考察FD-1对高浓度苯酚废水的降解效果,以及十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)对高浓度苯酚废水中FD-1菌株生长的影响。试验表明,假丝酵母菌FD-1对苯酚的最大降解质量浓度为1 500 mg/L,降解时间为30 h。当苯酚质量浓度不超过1 000 mg/L时,添加适量的SDS可以显著提高苯酚降解速率,进而缩短苯酚降解时间,SDS的最佳投加量为100 mg/L,超过150 mg/L时FD-1生长受到抑制。
〖关键词〗苯酚;假丝酵母菌FD-1;十二烷基磺酸钠;工业废水
Abstract〗FD-1, a phenol degrading bacterium acclimated from the sludge of a phenol containing wastewater treatment pool. The effect of FD-1 on the degradation of high concentration phenol wastewater and the effect of SDS on the growth of FD-1 strain in high concentration phenol wastewater were investigated by experiments. The results showed that the maximum degradation concentration was 1 500 mg/L by FD-1 strain, and the degradation time was 30 h. SDS can significantly improve the rate of phenol degradation when the phenol concentration no more than 1 000 mg/L, which can shorten the time of phenol degradation. The best dosage of SDS was 100 mg/L.The growth of FD-1 was inhibited when the SDS concentration reached 150 mg/L.
Key words〗Phenol; FD-1 bacteria; Sodium dodecylsulphate; Industrial wastewater
〖基金〗中国环境科学研究院“非正规垃圾填埋场渗滤液污染修复与环境综合整治工程示范”基金资助项目(2015YSKY-009)

〖篇 名〗广东省部分饮用水源地水中总α和总β放射性水平
〖作 者〗黄文暖1,聂一凡1,杨启泽1,严宇晴1,宋刚1,2,3*,陈迪云1,2,3
〖机 构〗1.广州大学环境科学与工程学院,2.广东省放射性核素污染控制与资源化重点实验室,3.广州大学珠三角水质安全与保护创新中心暨省部共建教育部重点实验室
〖摘 要〗调查广东省不同地区饮用水源地水中总α、总β放射性水平,分丰水期和枯水期2次各采集20个不同水样,按照《生活饮用水标准检验方法〓放射性指标》(GB/T 5750.13—2006),利用BH1227型低本底α、β测量仪测定样品。结果表明,40个水样中总α、总β放射性水平分别为0.017 Bq/L ~0.286 Bq/L 和0.027 Bq/L ~0.397 Bq/L,测量值均在正常本底波动范围之内,放射性指标符合国家《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB 5749—2006)。
〖关键词〗总α;总β;放射性水平;饮用水源地;水质;广东省
Abstract〗This paper investigated the total alpha and total beta radiation levels in drinking water sources from different regions of Guangdong province. 40 samples were collected in wet season and dry season, and determined by BH1227 low background alphabeta admeasuring apparatus referring to the Standard Examination Methods for Drinking WaterRadiological Parameters (GB/T 5750.13—2006). The results showed that the concentration of total alpha and total beta ranged from 0.017 Bq/L to 0.286 Bq/L and 0.027 Bq/L to 0.397 Bq/L,respectively. All of the measurements were below the limits of Standards for Drinking Water Quality(GB 5749—2006)  and within the fluctuation range of the normal background.
Key words〗 Total alpha; Total beta; Radiation level; Drinking water sources; Water quality; Guangdong province
〖基金〗国家自然科学基金资助项目(41373117,U1501231);广州市科技计划基金资助项目(201707010421);广州大学“创新强校工程”基金资助项目;2015年广东省大学生校外实践基地建设基金资助项目